History of Crime and Criminal Justice Outline

History of Crime and Criminal Justice in America
An Outline


                                                                                                                   Ancient World

I Primitive/tribal world

II Biblical

III Classical World

IV. Medieval  England

           V. Modern World

        A. France

        B. Russia

        C. England




                                                                                                                Crime and Justice in Colonial America

            I Introduction

                    A. Periodization

                        1. General

                        2. Specific

                                a. Village Period

                                b. Town Period

                    B. Themes

    1. Geography and Settlement

          a. "Regionalism"

b. North

c. South

d. Middle

e. Frontier

f. "Takers and Leavers"

   2. Immigration

          a. Who Came/ who did not

          b. New England and North East England

          c. Virginia and South West England

          d. Quakers and the Delaware Valley

          e. Baggage

                i. Old Ideas/ law

                    >Common Law

                    >Biblical law

                ii. Old Institutions

                    >Law enforcement



                iii. With a Twist

    3. Religion

            a. Catholic

            b. Protestantism

       i. Defined

       ii. Anglican

       iii. Quakerism

       iv. Puritanism


  >Mind set



            *City on the Hill

             *Human Nature

             *Harsh Punishments

              *Importance of Discipline

              *Importance of obedience

              *Social Activism

              *Police State           

               *Religion and State

               *"Symbolic Crusades"

>Thought Leaders

      *Cotton Mather

      *Increase Mather

ii. Deism and Democracy
4. Scape Goats

a. Land

 b. Indigenous People

 c. Others

        i. French

        ii. Spanish

        iii. Criminals

        iv. Witches


5."Culture clash"


6. "Community"


7. Generation Gaps


8. Conspiracy

II. Crime in Colonial America

A. Village Period

1. General

           a. Community and Control

           b. Culture Clash

                   i. Indigenous peoples

                        >Clash of world views

                        >Phase 1= quest for conversion

                         >Phase 2= necessity for survival

                         >Phase 3= Source of fear

                         >Phase 4= War

                         >War and Terrorism

                                *King Philip's War (1675-76)

                                *America's most deadliest

                                        -1 in 10 killed

                                        -2/3s of New England's towns attacked

                                        -1/2 of settlements left in ruin


                                        -Historic amnesia


                                        -Myth making

                    ii. Catholics and conspiracy

                    iii. Quakers

                    iv. Deviants: Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams

                    v. Witches

    2. Murder and Billington

            a. Read "Pilgrim's  Justice" in  case studies

    3. Salem and Witches

            a. Definition

            b. History and Swan Song

            c. Salem/1692

                       i. On the cusp

                       ii. Village and town

                       iii. Pace of events

                                >Jan to May

                                 >May to Sept

                                  >Sept +


                         v. Initial Witches






                               vi. Later Witches

                               vii. "Tipping points"


                                                    <Samuel Parris

                                                    <John Putman

                               viii. Meaning

                                ix. Causes

                                         >Secularism v fundamentalism

                                         >Concerns over Indians

                                         >Concerns over French

                                         >Diseased grain


        d. Vice

                a. "Blue laws"

                b. Gambling

                            i. Capital improvements

                             ii. Lottery

                c. Drinking

                             i. Liquid and hygiene

                             ii. Diplomatic tool / Indians

                            iii. Currency and barter

                             iv. Issue of temperance

                 d. Sex

                             i. View of women

                                        >Eve as temptress

                                         >Mary as scared virtue

                                ii. Prioritizing  sex: saintly to sin






        e. Rape

                    i. Types of Rape

                                   >Stranger Attack

                                    >Family rape


                                            *Girl child

                                    >Power over powerless








                                             *German mercenaries

                    ii. Victims of Rape

                                      >Black females could not be raped==no human status

                                       >Dominance of patriarchy

                                       >Lower class and ignorance

                                                *Ignorant and intimidated by the system

                                                *Male concern over costs and publicity

                                                *Modesty and rape talk

                    iii. Problem of proof

                                        >Against will

                                                  *Force v. coercion

                                                   *Folk beliefs

                                                            <To become pregnant the women had to enjoy (orgasm) sex

                                          >Signs of force

                                                    *Midwife or females examine

                                                    *Degrees of resistance==calls for help

                                                     *Penetration v emission


                                          >Victim's character

                                                       *Importance of virginity

                       iv. Race and Rape

                                           >Emergence of the black rapist concept

                        v. Punishment


                                                        *Blacks more likely to be executed

                                                         *In the south a post mortem dismemberment



B. Town Period
1 General crime and examples

2. "Hot Spots"

a. Crime Sections of towns...dev. of harbor districts=geography and crime.

b. Crime cities...Philadelphia=crime as reputation

3. "Suspected Ones"
a. Uprooted
i. Indentured Servants

ii. Transported Criminals

iii. Sailors

b. Rooted

         i. Slaves

         ii. Freed Blacks

         iii. Poor


4. Reflections of the commercial society

a. Smugglers

b. Pirates

       i. History

       ii. Reasons

             >Navy vets

             >Privateers v pirates

             >Colonial expansions and wars


          iii. Pirate places

           iv. Symbols of terror: Jolly Rogers

            v. Characters

                 >Edward Teach

                  >William Kidd

                   >Henry Morgan

                   >Bartholomew Roberts

                    >Mary Read

                    >Anne Bonny

              vi .Executions

c. Counterfeiters

d. Prostitution

            i. NYC and "Holy Ground"

            ii. Boston and "Mount Whoredom"

5. Disorder

a. Rebellions

i. Bacon's

ii. Paxton's


iii. Green Mountain Boys

 b. Slave Revolts
i. New York City, 1712

ii. North Carolina's Stono Revolt, 1739

iii. New York City's "Negro Conspiracy," 1741

 c. Colonial Mobs
i. Definition

ii. Examples

> Mobs of Excitement

> Mobs of Indignation

> Mobs of Fear

> Mobs With Political Agenda

  iii. The Regulator Movement




        < Vigilantism

        < Revolution

C. Criminal Justice in Colonial America
1. Criminology
a. Demonic School

b. Religion as Criminal Justice

2. Law and Legal Systems
a. Law and the
i. Bible

ii. Common Law

b. Courts
i. Inquisitorial

ii. Salem System

iii. Samuel Sewall Story

iv. Medieval Ordeal

v. Circuit

vi. Presumption of guilt

vii. Importance of confession

            >Save the soul

            >Validate the rules

3. Punishment
a. "Village Period"

          i. Purpose

                        >Medieval loophole

                        >Benefit of clergy

                         >Neck Verse: Psalm 51

          ii. Banishment

          iii. Corporal

           iv. Capital

                            >Thomas Graunger Story 

  v. Institutions
        >Stocks and Pillories

        > Shaming

    b. "Town Period"

    i. Institutions
        > Gaol

        > Debtor's prison

    ii. Purposes

    iii. The Negro Crime Narratives




4. Law Enforcement
a  English models

    i. South

            >The Sheriff System

             >Plantation Justice

    ii. North and the Constable/night watch





                                                                                                                    New Nation and New Things

I. Introduction

A. Periodization,1776-1830

B. Themes

        1. "City on the Hill"

        2. Geography and discovery

        3. Politics

        4. War

                a. Terrorism/ Barbary Coast

                b. War of 1812

        5. Religion/Evangelicalism

        6. Law

        7. Ideology

                a. Equality

                b. Liberty

                c. Justice as process

        8. The New American

                a. The Good Citizen

                            i. Self disciplined

                            ii. Tolerant

                            iii. Play by the rules

                            iv. "Social Contract"

                            v. Resist violence

                            vi. Violence in a good cause

                            vii. Control passions

                            viii. Be productive

                             ix. Moral

                b. The Bad Citizen

                            i. Unmarried

                            ii. Wanton sex

                            iii. Too masculine

                            iv. Youth

                            v. Idle

                            vi. Lustful

                            vii. Lack self control

                            viii. Race: freed blacks

                              ix. Poor

        9. Anti Fed Gov

        10. Patriarchy

        11. Christmas and disorder

              a. North

                    i. Puritan anti Christmas

                    ii. Middle class and wassailing

                    iii. Callithumpians

            b. South and John Canoe

            c. America's invention

        12. Demography/ the Scot-Irish

        13. Violence as virtue

            a.. American Revolution

            b. Crisis: Whiskey Rebellion

            c, Rural Radicals

            d.. The South

11.. Crime in the New Nation
A. General

        1. Secularization

        2. Literature

                a. America's first novel

                        i. William hill Brown's The power of Sympathy, 1789

                        ii. Themes: murder, love suicide

                b. Crime pamphlets

                        i. A Deed of Horror! trial of Jason Fairbanks for the Murder of his sweetheart, 1801

 B. Conspiracy

        1. Meaning

                   a. Scape-goating

                    b. Vulnerability

         2. Catholics

         3. Masons and the William Morgan incident

          4. Mormons

          5. Strange death of Merweather Lewis

          6. Treason and sedition? Aaron Burr and General Wilkinson

          7. Lower classes v the elites: rural rebellions

                     a. Shay's Rebellion

    C. Gangs in the New Nation

            1. Old Brewery

            2. Plug Uglies

             3. Day Break Boys

    D. The "Peculiar South"

            1. Growing apart

                       a. Virginia Dynasty 

                        b. "The Great Match Race" 1823

                                i. Eclipse v. Sir Henry

                        c.  Militarism as way of life

              2. Plantation Justice

                        a. Slave as problem and threat

                                 i. Master as minority

                                 ii. Culture clash and conformity

                                 iii. Theft

                                  iv. Rape

                                    v. Runaway

                                    vi. Murder


                                    i. Identity

                                          > Markings

                                           > Papers

                                     ii. Slave patrols

                                     iii. Courts

                                     iv. Punishment




               3. Duel as symbol

                        a. History

                        b. Characteristics

                                     i. Honor

                                     ii. Militarism

                                    iii. Structure

                                               >Seconds and officiating

                                                >Dueling Grounds

                                                 > To death or not

                                                  >Democracy: Swords [nobility] to pistols

                           c. Sensations

                                    i. Stephen Decatur

                                    ii. Andrew Jackson

                                    iii. Hamilton-Burr

                            d. Lower classes and the Gouge

               4. Why the South?

                        a. Demographics

                        b. Weak CJS

                        c. Culture of Honor

                        d Anthropology

                                   i. Hunting cultures

                                   ii. Farming cultures

                                   iii.Herding cultures

III. Criminal Justice in the New Nation

A. Criminology

           a. Old Notions: Devil

 b. Cesare Beccaria and America

     i. On Crimes and Punishment, 1764

     ii. Elements

            >Eliminate harshness


            >"Hedonistic Calculus"


            >Calibrating severity

            >Certainty of punishment  


2. Criminal Law and Legal System
a. Secularization of the Criminal Law

b. Common law in a democracy

       i. Elitist by nature

       ii. Natural Law

       iii. Supreme Court and John Marshall

c. "Republican Code" Movement

        i. Importance of statutory law

        ii. Federal/ Bill of Rights

        iii. State

                >Before: Harsh

                >Republican codes


                        <Anti-Common law

                        <Law by legislature


                                *Numerous capital offenses

                                        /Anti public capital punishment movement

                                        /Where to capitally punishment

                                *Corporal punishments

                         <Degrees of culpability


                         <Election of judges


3. Punishment
a. Gaol to jails

b. "Prisons"

        i. Newgate in NYC

        ii. Walnut Street in Philadelphia

        iii. Pennsylvania Prison Society

c. Penitentiary Movement

i. Causes

        >Beccaria' influence


        >Perplexity of democracy/capitalism

        >Perplexity of liberty

        >Failure of




ii. American Rationale

        >Liberty v Denying liberty

        >Patriarchy in a democracy

iii. Pennsylvania System



          >World view

                <Quaker contemplation

                <Monastic in nature

           >Solitude and meditation

           >Idleness to work

           >Politics of penology

                   <Pro Penn position





                    <Anti Penn position

                             *Not economical

                             *Not humane

                             *Did not work

iv. Auburn, NY System


            >Elements/factory model

            >World view

                    <Puritan mindset

                                *Importance of obedience

                                *Develop good habits and skills

                                *Emphasis on power through control

                                *Importance of the state/religious connection

                                 *Pain and discomfort is good for the soul

>Features and Rationale


        <Congregate work


                    *Elam Lynds

  >European tourists

        <Gustave de Beaumont and Alexis de Tocqueville

        <Charles Dickens

    >Politics of Penology

        <Pro Auburn/Sing Sing




           <Anti Auburn


                           *Freed Blacks

4. Law Enforcement
a. Old Ways continued

        i. Jacob Hays: High Constable of NYC

        ii. "The Shadow"

b. Some Experiments at Boston




                                                                                   Crime and Criminal Justice in  Jacksonian America


I. Introduction

A. Periodization--1830-1855

B. Themes

1. Urban Growth

2. Immigration, ethnicity and xenophobia

3. Culture Clash

4. Politics

        a. Era of the "Common Man"

        b. Patronage

5. Media and the "penny press"

6.  Sex and

        a. The "Victorian Compromise"

        b. The "Unwritten Law"

7.  Bachelor Culture and the "Sporting Man"

        a. Masculine culture

8. Urban Gangs

9.  Symbols of an age

a. Andrew Jackson

b. P.T. Barnum

II. Crime in the Jacksonian Era
A. Ordinary crime and violence

        1. Criminal Districts

                    a. America's First Slum= Five Points

        2. Bank Robbery

        3 Confidence Games

                    a. Before: A world of neighbors and trust

                            i. Life, Career and business of P.T. Barnum

                            ii. Importance and tradition of the hoax

                            iii. April Fools Day

                    b. Now

                            i. Urban anonymity

                            ii. Nature of victims

                    c. Games

            4. Urban Youth Gangs

                    a. Nature of family life

                     b. Importance of street life

                     c. Type of youth gangs

                                i. Street corner

                                ii. Theft

                                iii. Combat

                     d. Selective sample names of gangs

                                i. NYC

                                        >Forty Thieves


                                        >Bowery Boys

                                        >Roach Guards

                                        >Dead Rabbits

                                        >Plug Uglies

                                ii. Philadelphia




                                           >Forty Thieves



        5. Abortion

                a. "Quickening Doctrine"

                b. Life and Career of Madam Restell

        6. Infanticide

        7. Prostitution

                a. Market

                b. Structure

                            i. Street walkers

                            ii. Assignation

                            iii. Brothel



                                                        *Male Muscle


                                                        * "girls"

                    c. Reasons for becoming a prostitute

                                i. Female work in a male world

                                ii. Destitute

                                iii. Appealing Life style

                                iv. Victim of seduction

                    d. Vulnerable

                                i. Disease

                                ii. "Brothel Bullies"

                                iii. Murder: Helen Jewett

                                iv. Moral Crusaders

            8. Rape

            9. "Trail of Tears"

B. Extraordinary Crime

            1. Presidential assassination attempt

                    a. Andrew Jackson and Richard Lawrence

                    b. McNaughten in America

            2. Murder as sensation

                    a. Helen Jewett

                    b. Mary Rogers

            3. Government as criminal

                    a. Cherokee Indians

                               i. Americanized and culture clash

                               ii. Supreme Courts decisions

                    b. Andrew Jackson and

                                i. Treaty systems

                                ii. Supreme Court

                    c. Trail of Tears

             4. Disorder

                    a. Rise of mobs

                    b. Rationale

                    c. Types

                                   i. Street kids

                                   ii. Ethnic

                                   iii. Religious


                                            >Mormons and Nauvoo

                5. Crime and the Media

                        a. "Penny Press"

                        b. The Flash Press

                        c. "Mystery Story" and Poe

                        d. Police Gazette

III. Criminal Justice in Jacksonian America
A. Criminology
    1. Beccaria continued

    2. "Law of Criminal Succession"

B. Law and Legal System
    1. Judges and politics

    2. Juries and Alexis de Tocqueville

    3. Juries and nullification

    4. "unwritten law" or "Victorian Compromise"

C. Punishment
    1. Fall and Failure of the Penitentiary
a. Reasons

b. Repercussions

     2. Capital Punishment reforms
a. Public to private

b. Humane, the drop method

D. Child Saving

                1. Children as problem

                2. House of Refuge movement

                3. Charles Loring Brace and the Orphan Trains

E. Law Enforcement

        1. Modern Urban Police
    a. Defined

            i. Full time

            ii. Salaried

            iii. Tax supported

            iv. Preventative

            v. Identifiable

            vi. Centralized

        b. Resistances to reform

               i. French/Russian models

               ii. English model

               iii. "No standing army" ideology

                iv. American Models

                v. Captain Slick

        c. New York City

                i. Rise of the middle class

                ii. Heterogeneity

                iii. Disorder

                iv. Mary Rogers

                v. The Machine

        d. Formative years of the NYC police

                i. Finance

                ii. Police/population ratios

                iii. Identity

                iv. Ethnicity

                v. Detectives

                vi. Danger

                 vii. Politics

                   viii. A comparison with the Bobbies

            e. Chicago

                    i. Old police

                    ii. Nativism

                    iii. Levi Boone

                    iv. Failure of reform

                    v. Draconian Decrees

                    vi. Lager riots

                    vii. New Police

2. Private police: Allan Pinkerton

            a. Background

                    i. Scotland

                    ii. Dundee, Illinois

            b. Chicago

                    i. Railroad hub

                    ii. New Crime: employee dishonesty

                    iii. Northwest Police Agency




                                >"The Eye That Never Sleeps"

                c. Hamlet on the prairies




                                                                                    Crime and Criminal Justice During War: Civil and Uncivil


I. Introduction

A . Periodization, 1855-1875

B. Theme

1. Crisis: the best and worst

2. Tools of violence

        a. NRA 1871

        b. Violence as shock: "Republic of Sorrow"

                i. The Good Death

                ii. The New Death

                        > 620,000 lost

                        > In proportion to today's pop it would be 6 million

                        >Loss of loved ones

                                *the body

                                *the identity

                                *the closure



        c. Violence as resolution

        d. Violence as repulsion

                i. Societies for the prevention of violence of animals/children

3. Terrorism

4. "Just War" doctrine

5. Assassination and justice

6. War crimes and criminals

7. Business crime

8. Rearrange social situations

9. Popular culture: John Henry

II. Crime in the Civil War Era

           A. Ordinary Crime

                    1. "Washington Tragedy"

                            a. Dan Sickles and Philip Key

                    2. Baltimore Plot

                    3.  Infanticide: Margret Garner story

                    4. War

                            a. Bounty Jumpers

                            b. Camp life

                            c. Sex

                                    i. Camp followers: Anne Jones

                                    ii. Districts: Hookers Division

                                    iii. Disease

                              d. M.A.S.H. and morphine

                              e. Business crime

                               f. Looting

                                     i. Ordinary

                                      ii. Quantrill

                               g. Terrorism

                                    i. "Bleeding Kansas"

                                            >"Red Legs" and "Jayhawks"

                                            > Quantrill and Lawrence Ks.

                                       ii. John Brown

                                       iii. KKK

                  5. Railroad robbers

                                a. Express cars

                                b. Reno brothers

                                c. James brothers         

                   6. Shoplifting

                                a. Retail before

                                b. Department store

                                        i. Layout and ideology

                                        ii. Customer

                                        iii. Employee

                                        iv. Solutions

                    7. Counterfeiting

                                a. Extent

                                        i. By 1864  1/2 the money in circulation in north was bogus

                                 b. Culture

           B. Extraordinary Crime        

                    1. Sumner and Brooks

                    2. Disorder

                            a. Baltimore insurgency

                            b. NYC Draft Riots

                            c. Colfax, La, 1873

                    3. Assassination

                            a. The Plot

                            b. The Act: Ford theater

                            c. The Conspirators

                                        i. John Wilkes Booth

                                        ii. Lewis Powell

                                        iii. David Herold

                                        iv. George Atzerodt

                                         v. John Surratt

                                        vi. Others?

                                                >Samuel Mudd

                                                >Mary Surratt

                                                >The "Canadian Cabinet"

                             d. The Chase

                                        i. Twelve days of April

                                        ii. Garrett's Farm

                                                   >Lafayette and Luther Baker

                                                    >"Boston" Corbett

                               e. The Trial

                                        i. Bureau of Military Justice and Joseph Holt

                                        ii. Process and procedure

                                f. The Execution

                4. Jesse Pomeroy

                             a. Boys

                                        i. Popular culture

                                        ii. Onanism

                              b. "Boy Fiend"

              5. Political Crime

                              a. Local: Tweed/ Carter Harrison Sr.

                              b. National

                                        i. Credit Mobilier

                                        ii. U.S. Grant

                                        iii. Election of 1876

             6. Child Abuse

                            a. Extent

                            b. Mary Ellen McCormack 1874

                                        i. Life

                                        ii. Torture

                                        iii Trial

                                        iv Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

III. Criminal Justice in the Civil War era

A. Criminology

       1. Classical (Free Choice) School

       2. Positivism/ determinism

       3. Charles Loring Brace

                a. The Dangerous Classes of New York 1872

                b. Preventable causes of crime

                            i. Ignorance

                            ii. Intemperance

                            iii. Overcrowding

                            iv. Idleness

                            v. Weak marriage

                c. Non Preventable Causes of Crime

                               i. Immigration

                               ii. Orphanage

                               iii. Accident

                                iv. Passions

    B. Law

            1, Ex Parte Milligan

            2. 14th Amendment

            3. Comstock Law

    C. Corrections

            1. POW Camps

                    a. Andersonville and Henry Wirz

                    b. POW camps of Illinois

            2. Penitentiaries/ prisons

                    a. Enoch Wines and Louis Dwight

                                i. Report on the Prisons (1867)

                     b. New Penology

                                i. Zebulon Brockway

                                ii. Problem

                                iii. Solution



                      c. Illinois

                                i. Alton

                                ii. Joliet



                                         >Inmate culture


                                                 *In coming





                                         >Guard Culture





                                                  *Up to 1875

                                                   *1875 and Robert McClaughry

                        d. The South and Libby Prison

                        e. "Sisters Keepers"

                                i. Ideology

                                ii. Resistances

                                iii. Progress: Indiana

                        f. Death

                                i. Minnesota Sioux

                                ii. CoConspirators               

    D. Police

            1. Pinkertons

                        a. Civil War

                                i. Secret Service

                                        >Spies in the South: Timothy Webster

                                        >Counter intelligence: Rose Greenhow

                                  ii. Business criminals

                         b. Post Civil War

                                    i. Building a national org

                                    ii. Rail road robbers

                                    iii. Jesse James incident

            2. Federal police

                          a. Secret Service

                           b. Occupation of the South

            3. Local Police

                           a. Model

                           b. Uniforms

                           c. Detectives

                           d. Home rule and the Boss

                            e. Ethnicity





                                                                                                      Crime and Justice in the West

I. Introduction

A. Periodization, 1620 to 1890

B. Definitions

1. Time.

2.  Geography

3. State of  Mind

          C. Importance

                    1. Frontier Thesis

                            a. Frederick Jackson Turner

                            b. The American Character

                    2. Mythology

                            a. Romanticism

                            b. Reality

                    3. Homestead Act and Squatter mentality

                    4. Illinois connection

                            a. Wyatt Earp

                            b. Bat Masterson

                            c. Wild Bill Hickok

                            d. Jack Slade

                            e. Charles Bolles (Black Bart)

                            f. Gordon Lillie (Pawnee Bill)

                            g. William Quantrill

                            h. John Wesley Powell

                    5. Unique Problems/ solutions

II. Crime in the West

            A. Migration

                    1. Who came?

                            a. "To See The Elephant"

                            b. Dissatisfied

                            c. Opportunists

                            d. Risk takers

                            e. Men

                            f. Women

                                    i. Frontier Prostitution

                                    ii. Types

                                            >Brothel dweller

                                            >Saloon/dance hall "entertainer"

                                            >Crib girl

                                            >Street walker

                                            >"Cat wagon"

               B. Geography

                            1. Borders

                                 a. Borderless and "Bad Lands"

                                  b. Land as sanctuary

                                  c. Rivers

                                        i. Ambiguity of authority

                                        ii. River pirates

                                        iii. River town

                                        iv. River boats

                                                >Riverboat gambling


                                                        *George Devol

                                                         * Professional v amateur

                                                 >The Great Race and the great divide

                             2. Land

                                    a. Vastness and waste

                                    b. As Enemy to be conquered

                                    c. As obstacle

                                    d. As issue

                                            i. Open range

                                           ii. The Barbed wired Fence

                                           iii. Riparian rights

                             3. Unforgiving nature of nature

                                     a. As seducer: Gold Rush and 'busted"

                                     b. Donner Party

                                     c. Personality

              C. "Community" and violence

                            1. Transient Towns

                                    a. Disorder

                                           i. Mining towns

                                           ii. Railhead towns

                                    b. Orderly

                                            i. Cattle towns

                                                >Dodge City

                                                >Baxter Springs




                                            ii. Wagon trains

                              2. Stable towns

                                      a. Salt Lake City

                                      b. San Francisco

                              3. Western crime capital : Las Vegas, New Mexico

              D. The Gun

                             1. Nature of 18th and early 19th Century guns

                             2. Samuel Colt of Conn.

                                    a. Invention

                                    b. Failure

                              3. Texas and the Rangers

                                    a. Indian problem

                                    b. Colt revisited

                               4. "Democratizing the Gun"

                                     a. Inter-changeable parts                   

                                     b. Rapid fire over accuracy

               E. Villains/Heroes

                               1. Clear villains

                                        a. Bob Ford

                               2. Clear heroes

                                      a. The "Good" Woman

                                3. Ambiguous ones

                                        a. Federal government

                                                i. Treaties

                                                ii. Reservation system

                                        b. Mormons

                                                 i. Positive

                                                        >Settlers and civilizers

                                                        >Indian relations

                                                  ii. Negative



                                                           >Mountain Meadows Massacre

                                           c. Law Enforcement

                                                     i. Hired killers

                                                     ii. Law enforcement by reputation

                                                     iii. Wild Bill Hickok

                                                     iv  Wyatt Earp

                                                      v. John Wesley Hardin

                                                      vi. Pat Garrett

                                            d. Crooks

                                                        i. Jesse James

                                                        ii. Butch Cassidy

                                                        iii. William Bonney  " ?Quien es?

            F. Disposable People

                                1. "Pioneer"

                                               a. From the French: pionnier

                                                b. Meant foot soldiers who cleared the way for an army

                                                c. Pioneering was a paramilitary occupation

                                2. Means of disposing

                                                a. Demonize

                                                b. Disease

                                                c. Deceit

                                                d. Deport

                                                e. Detain

                                                f. Destroy

                               3. Indians and America's genocide

                                                a. A Primer on Sioux religion and world view

                                                       i. Two great forces

                                                                    >Mother Earth

                                                                    >Great Spirit: Wakan Tanka

                                                       ii. The Good Life: living in harmony with


                                                                    >All living things

                                                       iii. Importance of 4 or the scared number

                                                                      >Things that breath:: crawl, fly, 2 legs 4 legs

                                                                      >Things above the earth: sun, stars, moon, planets

                                                                      >Green things: roots, stem, leaves, fruits

                                                                      >Time: day, night, moon [month] year

                                                                      >Elements: fire, water, air, earth

                                                                      >Directions: north, south, east, west

                                                       iv. Buffalo Calf Woman Legend

                                                        v. Sacred objects and ceremonies

                                                                       >Peace pipe ceremony

                                                                       >Sweat Lodge Ceremony

                                                                       >Vision Quest

                                                                       >Sun Dance

                                                                       >Spirit Calling

                                                                       >Blood mingling

                                                                       > Give Away ceremony

                                                        vi. Scared places: Black Hills

                                                        vii. Sioux Calendar

                                                                       >The Moon of Frost in the Tepee...January

                                                                        >The Moon of the Dark Red Calves....February

                                                                        >The Moon of the Snowblind...March

                                                                        >The Moon of the Red Grass Appearing...April

                                                                        >The Moon When Ponies Shed...May

                                                                        >The Moon of Making Fat...June

                                                                        >The Moon of Red Cherries or The Moon When Cherries Are Ripe....July

                                                                        >The Moon When Cherries Turn Black...August

                                                                         >The Moon When Calves Grow Hair...September

                                                                         >The Moon of the Changing Season...October

                                                                          >The Moon of Falling Leaves...November

                                                                           >The Moon of Popping Trees...December

                                                        b. Words

                                                                i. Lakota becomes Sioux

                                                                ii. Inoca or Ininiwek (pl) becomes Illiniwek then Illinois

                                                        c. Places

                                                                i. Trail of Tears

                                                                ii. Black Hills

                                                        d. "Indian"

                                4. Mexicans

                                                        a. Words            

                                                               i. Rodeo to rodeo

                                                               ii. "Greaser"

                                                               iii. "Desperado"

                                                       b. Native Californians

                                                       c. California and lynching

                                                                i. Joaquin Murrieta

                              5. Chinese

                                                         a. Segregated work

                                                         b. Segregated towns

                                                         c. Rock Springs massacre

    G. Military

                           1. Indian Wars

                                                          a. Northern Plains

                                                                       i. Dakotas and Wyoming

                                                                       ii. Black Hills gold rush

                                                                       iii. Sioux et al

                                                                       iv. Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse

                                                                       v. Little Big Horn

                                                                       vi. Sand Creek

                                                                       vii. Wounded Knee

                                                             b. Southern Plains

                                                                        i. Texas, New Mexico

                                                                        ii. Apache et al

                                                                        iii. Cochise and Geronimo

                                                                        iv. Kit Carson and Lew Wallace

                                                                         v. Canyon de Chelly

                                                                        v. Navajo's The Long Walk"

                                  2. Cattleman's Wars

                                                                a. Wyoming and the Johnson County War

                                                                        i. Causes

                                                                        ii. Characters : Tom Horn

                                                                b. New Mexico and the Lincoln County War

                                                                        i. Causes

                                                                        ii. Characters: Billy the Kid

      H. Symbols and Mythmaking

                              1. Alamo

                                                                  a. The Glory of defeat

                                                                  b. Heroic characters

                                                                  c. Villains

                            2. Little Big Horn

                                                                   a. The Glory of Defeat

                                                                   b. The story from the Indians perspective

                                                                   c. Heroic Characters and Fools

                          3. OK Corral

                                                                   a. Tombstone Arizona and mining

                                                                    b. Contestants

                                                                          i. "Cow boys" the Clantons

                                                                          ii. Federal law enforcement: Earps

                                                                    c. The Art of the Shoot out

                                                                    d. 30 seconds and 30 shots

                                                                     e. Issues

                                                                           i. Federal v Local law enforcement

                                                                          ii. Politics

                                                                          iii. Gun control

                                                                          iv. Immigration and border control

                                                                          v. Vice v non vice

                        4. Deadwood SD and "Dead Man's Hand"

                                                                   a. The West as tourism

                                                                   b. Shoot outs at 1,3,and 5pm

                       5. Buffalo Bill Cody and the Wild West Show

                                                                   a. The Show

                                                                   b. The Characters

                                                                       i. Geronimo

                                                                       ii. Annie Oakley

                      6. The Harvard Men

                                                                  a. Theodore Roosevelt

                                                                  b. Owen Wister

                                                                  c. Remington's art

                      7. The Hollywood Men

                      8. "Indianness"

                                                                  a. Reservations

                                                                  b. Boy Scouts

                                                                  c. Summer Camp

                                                                 d. Genealogy

                                                                  e. "Black Elk Speaks"

                     9. "The Mild, Mild West"


III. Criminal Justice in the West

        A. Law

                 1. "Law West of the Pecos"

                                                            a. Judge Roy Bean

                 2. Federal v local

                 3. Committees of Vigilance

        B. Law Enforcement

                1. Federal Territory and Marshals

                2. Regional

                                                            a. Texas Rangers

                                                            b. Northwest Mounted in Canada

                3. Private

                                                           a. Pinkertons

                                                           b. Vigilance Committees

                                                                            i. SF Committee symbols

                                                                            ii. Blindfolded goddess

                                                           c. Anti Horse Thief Associations

                4. Citizen and the "posse"

        C. Corrections

               1. Lynching

                                                      a. California

                                                      b. Montana

                2. Territorial

                3. Frontier jails

                4. State

                                                     a. San Quentin, 1851, 1854

                5. Mark Twain's account of a Virginia City, Nevada,  hanging.



                                                                                   Crime and Justice in the Gilded Age

I. Introduction

A. Periodization, 1875-1900

B Define Gilded Age

C. Themes

    1.  Rapid growth of business

    2. Rise of radical labor

    3. Shift in immigrant patterns

    4. Domination of political machines

    5. Rise of Vice lords and the Red Light District

    6.. Crime surge

    7. Criminal Justice

            a. Political

            b. Professional

    8. World's Fairs, 1876, 1893

II. Crime in the Gilded Age

        A. Business

            1. Business as Criminal

                        a. Ideology

                                i. Social Darwinism

                                ii. Neo Puritanism

                         b. Worker Exploitation

                                i. Work conditions

                                ii. Pay

                                iii. Arbitrary firing

                                iv. Distrust of workers

                        c. Consumer exploitation

                                i. Buyer Beware

                        d. "Robber Barons"

               2. Business as victim

                        a. Department stores and shop lifting

                        b. Hotels

                        c. Transit systems

                        d. Recreational places

        B. Political

                1. Presidential election of 1876

                2. Machine politics

                        a. New York

                        b. Chicago

                                i. Carter Harrison Sr.

                                ii. "Lords of the Levee"

                3. South and Jim Crow

        C. Labor and Workers

                1. Puritan work ethic

                        a. Hard work

                         b. Thrift

                         c. Loyalty

                2. Foreign threat

                          a. Germans

                 3. Molly Maguire

                            a. Background

                                    i. Ireland

                                    ii. Pennsylvania

                            b. Deep undercover

                            i. Pinkertons

                            ii. James McPharlan

                  c. Out comes

        4. Rail Road Strikes of 1877

                    a General Strike

                            i. Defined

                            ii. Significance

                     b. Police

                            i. Public

                            ii. Private

                     c. Army

        .            d. National Guard

 D. Vice

        1. "Vice Lords"

                     a. Michael Cassius McDonald

                      b "Lords of the Levee"

                               i. What is the Levee

                               ii.. "Bath House" John Coughlin

                               iii. "Hinky Dink" Michael Kenna

        2. Gambling

                       a. Lottery and "numbers"

                                i. Western Union

                                ii. Louisiana

                        b Houses

                                i. MacDonald and the "Casino"

                                ii. Gambler's Alley               

                                iii. Career of John Morrissey

                                iv. "Sportsmen" v. the amateur

                                 v. History of Poker

                                 vi. Significance of the slot machine

                        c. Horse Racing

                                 i. Jockey Clubs

                                        >Track racing


                                 ii. "Bookies"

                                 iii. Western Union and the pool room

                .       d. Baseball

                                  i. Rise

                                  ii. Louisville Grays, 1877

         3. Saloons

                        a. Beer and whiskey

                                i. Whiskey

                                            >Bourbon and Bourbon County Ky.






                                                     *Whiskey Rebellion 1794


                                ii. Beer

                                               >Importance of German migration

                                                       *Over 4 million Germans came to US by 1900

                                                       *Chicago's Lager Riot

                                                >By 1880 there were 4000 breweries in US

                                                >"Beer Barons"

                                                        *Milwaukee as Beer capital

                                                         *Frederick Pabst  as dominant leader

                                                          *Joseph Schlitz and Frederick Miller as competitors

                                                           * Outlier: Anheuser Busch of St Louis

                                                  >Competition with Whiskey

                                                           * English and Irish v Germany

                                                           *"Brewers Bread"

                                                            * Gemutlichkeit

                                                                        /Beer Gardens

                                                                        /Beer parks

                                                                                <Schlitz Park

                                                                                <Pabst Park

                                                                                <Miller Park


                        b. Saloon and masculinity

                        c. Types

                                  i. Tavern

                                            >Workingman's places

                                            >Family oriented

                                            > Services

                                            >Free lunch

                                 ii. Concert Saloons

                                            > Description


                                                    *The Store


                                                    *Trivoli Gardens

                                                    *Fox Hall

                                                    * The Horn


                                                    *The Machine

                                                    * Criminal Justice System

                                       iii. "Dives"


                                                >Crime connection

                                                >Bob Duncan's place in Chicago

                                                      *"King of Pickpockets"

                                                      *Mickey Finn and "Gold Tooth Mary"

          4. Sex

                       a. "Public space v. Private"

                       b. Types

                                        i. "Grisettes"

                                        ii. Street girls and crime

                                        iii. Panel houses

                                        iv. Brothel

                                                    >Storyville in New Orleans

                                                     >Barbary Coast in SF

                                                      >Tenderloin in NYC


                                                               *"Little Cheyenne"

                                                               * Levee

                                                               * Sporting Club House Directory

                                                               * A day in the life of a brothel prostitute

                         c. Why?

                                            i. Consumers

                                                        >Middle class men

                                            ii. Providers




                                             iii.. Protectors


                                                          >Police and judges

                                                           >Public health advocates

                                                           >Segregation and citizens

                       d. American policy towards prostitution

                                            i. Suppression

                                            ii. Toleration

                                            iii. Regulation: The "French System"

        5. Drugs

                        a. Criminals

                        b. Chinese

                        c. Patent Medicines

                                    i. Folk Medicine tradition

                                    ii. "Snake Oil' salesmen

                                    iii. William Rockefeller

                                    iv. Lydia Pinkham

                                    v. Swaim's Panacea

                                    vi. Wm Radam's Microbe Killer

                                    vii. Old Sachem Bitters

                                    viii. Holloway's Pills and Ointment

                                     ix. Allcock's Porous Plasters

                                     x, Hamlin's Wizard oil

                                     xi. Wakefield's Family Medicines

                                     xii.. Coka a Cola

                                      xiii/. Ingredients

E. Professional Criminals

        1. Shoplifters

                        a. Sophie Lyons

                        b. Madam Mannheim

        2. Pickpockets

                        a. "Crowd Fleecers"

                        b. Types

                        c. Life and career of George Washington Appo, 1858 to 1930

                                    i. Ethnicity

                                    ii. Father: Quimbo

                                    iii. Youth

                                                >Five Points and Donovan's Lane

                                                >Pickpocket: "The Gun"

                                                > The Mercury, a house of refuge at sea

                                                >Opium joints

                                                            *Smoking v eating

                                                            *Widespread: 25,000 joints in NYC

                                                            * The Layout


                                                            *Emergence of a bohemian culture

                                                                          <Journalist and artist: Poe

                                                                          < Criminal classes

                                                             *Intermingling of class, race and sexes

                                                             * New language

                                                                           <Habitual: "hop heads"

                                                                            <Novice: "pleasure smokers"

                                                                            <Opium: victor medicine, Spanish cigarettes, dope

                                                               *Law: Koch law, 1882

                                                >"Green Goods" and confidence games

                                iv. Blackwell's Island

                                v. Tombs

                                vi. Sing Sing

                                               >Homosexuality: 20%

                                               >Insanity rate per 1000



                                                                *Sing Sing= 4 but in 1890s 19

                                vii. Appo and Lexow

                                viii. Appo and the theater

                                  ix. Later life and death

        3. Sneaks

        4. Burglars

                        a. Residential

                                    i. "Second Story Man"

                        b. Commercial

                                    i. "Gentleman Burglars"







                                    ii  "Yegg"



        5. Fences

                        a. Definition

                        b. Reasons for flourishing

                                    i. Burden of proof on victim

                                    ii. Stolen goods altered

                                    iii. Little enforcement

                        c. "Queen of Fences" Fredericka Mandelbaum or "Old Woman" or " Marm Baum"

                                    i. Pinkertons

        6. Ghouls

                          a. Medical students

                                    i. "Grave yard shift"

                                    ii. Helen Jewett

                          b. For Ransom

                                    i. Lincoln plot, 1876

                                    ii. John Scott Harrison, 1878

        7. Youth Gangs             

                          a. "Whyos" of NYC , 1880s

                                    i. Name

                                    ii. Danny Driscoll

                                            >Youth and reputation

                                            >Killings and trials

                                            >Clothing as insignia

                                            >Execution and fame, 1887

                          b. Price list   (=2006 $)

                                    i. Punching $2 ($36)

                                    ii. Blackened Eyes $4 ($72)

                                    iii. Nose and jaw broke $10 ($180)

                                    iv. Ear Chewed Off $15 ($268)

                                    v. Leg or arm broke $19 ($339)

                                    vi. Shot or stabbed in leg $25 ($447)

                                    vii. "Doing the big job" $100 ($1789)

        8. Homicide: Chicago

                        a. Why Chicago?

                        b. Rate

                        c. Types

                                i. Barroom brawl




                                ii. Uxoricide (Wife killing)

                                        >Why rise?

                                        >Rage killings

                                        >German immigrants

F. Southern Violence

        1. Scotch-Irish in the Hills

                        a. "Appalachian Pattern"

                        b. Feuds

                               i. Howard family v Turner family in Ky

                               ii. Hatfield family v. McCoy family  in WV

                              iii. Baker family v Howard family in Ky

                              iv. French family v Eversole family in Ky

                               v. Martin family v Tollever family in Ky

                       c. Moonshiner as hero: "Major" Lewis Redmond

                       d. "Culture of Honor" revisited

       2. KKK and the "White Caps"

       3. Jim Crow

       4. Lynching

                       a. Scope

                                    i. West, Mid West, South

                                    ii. Racism

                                                >California "Greasers"


                                                            *"Coon Barbecues"

                                                             *"Nigger Hunts"

                       b. Types         

                                    i. Mob



                                    ii. Posse 

                                    iii. Private

                                    iv. Terrorist

                        c. Spectators

                                    i. Instigators

                                    ii. Souvenir collectors

                                    iii. "Death's Gaze"

                        d. Event

                                    i. Abduction

                                    ii. Site selection

                                                    >Crime scene

                                                    >Near Courthouse or jail

                                    iii. Confession

                                    iv. Method

                                    v. Post hanging

                                                    >Degradation of body


                         e. Reasons

                                     i. Inter racial violence

                                     ii. "Rape"

                                    iii. Failure to live Jim Crow

                                    iv. Psychological terror

                         f. Meaning

                                    i. Weak Criminal justice system

                                    ii. Process and procedure of criminal justice

                                    iii. Class divisions

                                    iv. Capital Punishment

                                                       >Democracy of death

                                                                   *Public to private

                                                                    * Jails to prison

       5. "Rape"

                        a. Meaning of rape

                        b. In reality?

                        c. False Accusations

       6. Black Response to Southern Violence

                        a. Leave the South

                        b. Seek redress from Feds

                        c. Compromise: live the stereotype

                        d. Self defense

                        e. Militancy

G. Sensation

           1. Presidential Assassination

                        a. James Garfield

                        b. Charles Guiteau

                        c. Implications

                                        i. Civil Service reform

           2. Charley Ross

           3. Haymarket

           4. Ethnicity

                        a. New Orleans and the Italians

                        b. David Hennessey

                        c. Pinkertons and Frank Damaio

            5. Serial Killer

                        a. H.H. Holmes/ Herman Mudgett

                                          i. Background

                                          ii. Southside of Chicago

                        b. The Castle

                                          i. The architecture

                                          ii. The killings

                        c. The Chase

                                           i. Pinkertons

                                           ii. Frank Geyer

             6. Lizzi Borden

                         a. Background

                         b. Outcome

                         c. Meaning


III. Criminal Justice in the Gilded Age

         A. Criminology

                1. Beccaria and "nurture"       

                2. Lombroso and "nature"

                3. Dugdale and the Jukes

         B. Law

                1. Sociology of law: Abortion

                          a. "Quickening Doctrine"

                          b. Abortion industry

                          c. Latter-day Puritans: Anthony Comstock

                          d. Professionalization of Medicine

                2. Law schools

                          a. Legal training before

                          b. New law school

                                            i. Harvard

                                            ii. Christopher Columbus Langdell

                                            iii. New curriculum

                                            iv. Professor v practitioners

                           c. Sundown schools

                3. Lawyers

                            a. Clarence Darrow

                                            i. Background

                                            ii. Patrick Eugene John Prendergast

                                                        > The Crime

                                                        >The Trial

                                                        > The Appeal

                             b. Howe and Hummell

                                             i. The Men

                                            ii. The Firm

                                            iii. the Clients

                                            iv. The Style


                                                         >Loophole lawyers

        C. Law Enforcement.

                    1. Private Detectives: Pinkertons

                                a. Investigation

                                            i. Ordinary

                                                        >Railroad robbers

                                                        >Bank burglars: ABA

                                                        >Jewel thieves: Jeweler's Security Alliance

                                                        > Etc

                                             ii. Spying



                                            iii. Sensations

                                                        >"The Dynamite Fiend"

                                                        > The event

                                                        >The investigation

                                  b. Watchman

                                            i. Ordinary

                                            ii. Strikes

                                            iii. Homestead


                                                          >Congressional Investigation

                                                          > Outcome

                     2. Federals

                                    a. U.S. Marshals

                                            i. Territories

                                            ii. California and Cunningham v. Neagle (1890)

                                    b. Secret Service

                                    c. Revenue Agents

                    3. Local Police   

                                    a. Model

                                    b. Administration

                                              i. General

                                              ii. Power



                                                            >Rank and File

                                    c. Innovations

                                                i. Work schedule

                                                ii. Call boxes

                                                iii. Flying squad

                                                iv. Criminal identification

                                    d. Personnel

                                                 i. Chiefs: Politics of Professionalism

                                                 ii. Detectives




                                                                            * Bagmen


                                                iii. Patrolmen





                                                                                *"Clubber" Williams

                                                                                * John Bonfield

                                                                    > Corruption


                                                                                            ^Rotten Apples

                                                                                            ^Rotten Pockets

                                                                                             ^Pervasive but unorganized

                                                                                              ^Pervasive and organized

                                                                                  *Thomas Byrnes

                                                                                  *Theodore Roosevelt

                                                                                   *Lexow Commision

                                                                    > Sub Culture


                                                                                     *Reasons for

                                                                                                ^Goos Goos

                                                                                                ^Latter Day Puritans

                                                                                                ^Critical Events

                                                                                                ^Literature: Police histories

       D. Corrections

               1. Reformatory Movement

                            a. Ideology

                                        i. Grading System

                                        ii. Regimen



                                                                    >The Summary

                              b. Institutions

                                        i. Elmira

                                        ii. Huntingdon, Pa

                                        ii. Pontiac, Ill

               2. Adult Prisons

                              a. South

                                        i. Problems



                                        ii. "American Siberia"

                               b. North

                                        i. Imprisonment rate

                                                                        > 1850=29 per 100,000

                                                                        >1880=115.2 per 100,000

                                        ii. Failure of Prisons

                                                                         >John Peter Altgeld

                                                                          >Our Prison Machinery and its Victims

                                        iii. The "New Warden"

                                                                           >National Prison Association (NPA)



                                                                                                ^ Reformatory Ideals for Adults

                                                                                                 ^Bertillon System of criminal identification

                                                                              >Politics of Professionalism

                                         iv. Illinois



                                                                                                    ^Robert McClaughry







                                                                                                      ^Bertillon System

              3. Federal

                          a. Before

                           b. Leavenworth

               4. Death                                         

                            a. Public to private

                            b. Jails

                            c. Hanging

                                               i. Grover Cleveland as hangman

                                               ii. Problems: the drop

                                                                           >  6 to 13 feet

                                                                           > Too short= long agonizing strangle

                                                                            >Too long= decapitation

                                               iii. Hangman's calculation Marwood

                                                                             >Body weight.......................drop


                                                                                        189.............................. 8ft 2 inches

                                                                                        182.............................. 8ft 4 inches

                                                                                        175...............................8ft 6 inches

                                                                                        168...............................8ft  8inches

                                                                                        161...............................8ft 10 inches

                                                                                        154 ..............................9ft

                                                                                        147...............................9ft 2 inches

                                                                                        140...............................9ft 4 inches

                                                                                        133...............................9ft 6 inches

                                                                                        126...............................9ft 8 inches

                                                                                        119...............................9ft 10 inches

                                                                                        112................................10 ft

                            d. Electricity

                                                i. Lightening and death

                                                ii. Quest for humane death....for who?

                                                iii. Battle of the currents

                                                                                   >Thomas Edison and DC

                                                                                    >George Westinghouse and AC

                                                                                    >Goal to

                                                                                                        *Electrify the World's Fair

                                                                                                        *Electrify America

                                                                                     >Means: electric chair

                                                 iv. William Kemmler

                                                                                     > Background

                                                                                      >In Re Kemmler, 1890

                                                                                                         * The Argument

                                                                                                          *. The Outcome


                                                     Crime and Criminal Justice in the Progressive Era

I. Introduction
A. Defined

            1. General

            2. Periodization       

B. Conditions

             1. Urbanization

              2. Industrialization

              3. Immigration

    4. Ethnicity: Italians and Slaves

    5. African Americans diaspora

    6. New journalism: Muckrakers

    7. New liberalism

a. Theodore Roosevelt

b. Woodrow Wilson

    8. New Ideology
a. Experts and efficiency

b. Expanded role of government

c. Anti-political machine

d. Purity Crusade

e. Preservation of resources

i. Natural

ii. Human

 f Social Justice

C. Crime and Popular Culture

       1. Topsy the elephant

       2"The Great Train Robbery"

       3. Keystone Cops

       4. Cost of living (1905)

             a. Average life expectancy in US was 47 years

              b. 14% of homes had a bathtub

              c. 8% of homes had a telephone

              d. There were 8,000 cars in America and 144 miles of paved roads

              e. The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 miles per hour

              f. Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa and Tennessee were each more heavily populated than Calif.

              g. California was 21st most populated state in US

              h. Average wage was 22 cents per hour

              i. Average worker made $200 to $400 per year

              j. 95% of births took place at home

              k. 90% of physicians had no college education

              l. Sugar cost 4 cents a pound

              m. Eggs were 14 cents a dozen

               n. Most women washed their hair once a month and used egg yokes for shampoo

               o. Five leading causes of death were

                            i. Pneumonia and influenza

                            ii. Tuberculosis

                            iii. Diarrhea

                            iv. heart disease

                            v. Stroke

                p Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii, and Alaska not in Union yet.

                q. Las Vegas, Nevada had 3o residents

                r. There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day

                s. 6^ of all Americans had graduated from high school

                t. Two out of ten Americans could not read or write

                v. Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were available over the counter in drug stores

                w. There were 230 reported murders in the entire US

D. Criminal Justice Conundrum

1. Efficiency v.

2.. Social Justice=

3. Tension

II. Crime in the Progressive Era

          A. Homicide: Chicago revisited

                   1.  Why Chicago?

                   2. Sensation of 1897: Adolph Luetgert Case

                          a. Setting/ Background

                          b. The Murder?

                          c. The Trial

                          d. The Outcome

                    3. Rate

                    4. Types

                          a. Barroom brawl down: why?

                          b. Wife killing up: why?

                                    i. Loss of male autonomy

                                    ii. Wife leaving

                          c. Husband  killing

                                    i. Self defense

                                    ii. Pent up rage: multiple shots and overkill

                                    iii. Increased assertiveness of females

                          d. Infanticide

                                    i. Nature

                                    ii. Reasons

                          e. Women and a "new unwritten law"

                          f. African Americans

                                   i. Extent

                                   ii. As victims

                                  iii. As killers

                        g. Italians and the Black Hand

                                  i. "Little Italy" and "Death's Corner"

                                 ii. Extent

                                iii. Mafia

                                iv. Big Jim Colosimo

                       h. The automobile and accidental death

                       i. Botched abortions : Louise Hagenow

                       j. Robbers and killing

                                i. rate

                                ii. "Auto Bandits"

                                iii. Saloon holdups

                                iv. Fagins and Jack Rollers

                                v. 61st Street Car Barn robbery, August 1903

                                        >Semi automatic pistols

                                        >The gang

                               vi. Demographics


B. Business/ political

         1. Business and the quest for profit

         2. Muckrakers

                a. Ida Tarbell

                b. Upton Sinclair and The Jungle

        3. Goos Goos

                 a. The Shame of the Cities

                  b. Treason in the Senate

        4. Crusades against The Boss

C. Workers and radicalism

1. IWW or "Wobblies"

        a. Big Bill Haywood and "Red" Emma Goldman

        b. Harry Orchard and the Gov. Steuenberg case

        c. Charley Siringo and the Pinkertons

        d. Joe Hill

2. Los Angeles Times Bombing

         a. William Burns

         b. Clarence Darrow

         c. The McNamaras

         d. The impact and meaning

2. Red Scare

        a. Palmer Raids

        b. ACLU

D. Vice
 1. The "Girl Problem": Female Sexual Delinquency

          a. "Parasexual" activity

b. Taxi Dance Halls

c. "Five and Ten Cent Theatres"

2. Prostitution and the Closing of the Red Light Districts

           a. "Satan's Circus"

            b. Chicago

                    i. 1st Ward Ball

                    ii. Everleigh Club

                            >The Sisters

                            >The Club

                            >The Girls

                            >The Ambiance

                            >The Customer

                            >The Enemy

                            >The Critical Events

                    iii. Old Policy

                    iv. New Policy

3. Saloons and the Boss

4. Gambling

a. Horse racing

b. Gambling houses

c. Career of Arnold Rothstein

5. The Crusades

           a. Phase 1

           b. Phase 2

6. Drugs

           a. 19th Century

           b. 20th Century

                    i. Racism

                    ii. Diplomacy

                    iii. Medical crusade

c. Outcome

          i. Pure Food and Drug Act

         ii. Harrison Act

E. Sensation.

        1. Presidential Assassination

                    a. McKinley and Czolgosz

                    b. Roosevelt

        2. Belle Gunness

        3. "Crime of the Century" Thaw/White incident

        4. The Hit

                    a. Satan's Circus

                    b. Charley Becker

                    c. Herman Rosenthal

                    d. "Big Tim" Sullivan

                    e. Others

                    f. Outcome

                    g. Meaning

        5. Mary Phagan

                    a. Atlanta, Ga

                    b. The Girl

                    c. The Factory

                    d. Leo Frank

                    e. Others

  F. Ethnicity

1. Italians and the Black Hand

 2. Chinese

            a. Chinatowns

             b. Opium dens

             c. White slavery

             d. Food and fortune cookies

   3. Jews

              a. Anti Semitism

               b. Leo Frank

      4.. Blacks
       a. Southern lynching and emergence of the "Bad Man" as black hero

        b. Northern movement

                     i. Riots

                              >Springfield, 1908

                               >East St Louis, 1917

                                >Chicago, 1919

                       ii. Sundown towns

   G. Small town mobsters

            1. John Looney of Rock Island, Illinois

    H. 1919 as symbol and symptom

  1. Red Scare

  2. Race Riots

  3. Boston Police Strike

  4. Baseball Scandals, "Say it ain't so Joe"

II. Criminal Justice in the Progressive Era
    A. Criminology

            1. Earlier

            2. Modern

                            a. Legal Perspective

                                            i. Northwestern University Law School

                                            ii. American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology

                            b. Social Science Perspective

                                            i. Psychology

                                            ii. Medical model

                            c. Managerial Perspective

                                            i. Bruce Smith

                                            ii. Leonard Fuld

                                            iii. Raymond Fosdick

                                             iv. August Vollmer

    B. Law and Legal Culture

                1. Legal profession

                            a. "Regulars" v "Irregulars"

                            b. Corporate law

                            c. Sundown Schools

                2. "New" Puritanism

                            a. Purity crusade

                            b.  Over Reach of the law

                3. Due Process

                            a. Federal Crime increase

                            b. Vice Crime increase

                            c. Weeks v. US

                            d. People  v Jennings and finger print evidence

                4. Juvenile Justice


    C. Law Enforcement

                1. Private Police

                            a. Pinkertons

                            b. Rise of William Burns

                            c. Leo Frank Case

                            d. Seymour & Seymour

                            e. Regulation laws

                2. Federal Police

                            a. Theodore Roosevelt

                            b. Vice Crusades

                            c. Secret Service and presidential protection

                                            i. Counterfeiting



                            d. Bureau of Investigation

                                            i. TR and Secret Service

                                            ii. Angry Congress

                            e. Immigration

                                            i. Assassination of McKinley by a radical alien

                                            ii. Flood of immigrants

                                            iii. America's conundrum



                                              iv. Threefold policy

                                                        >Don't let in

                                                        >Deportation as police power

                                                        >Don't give citizenship

                3. State Police

                               a. Problems

                                            i. Rural crime

                                            ii. Weak Sheriffs

                                            iii. Auto excursions

                                            iv. Union strikes

                               b. Pennsylvania

                                            i. Resistances

               4.  Local Police

                               a.  Problems

                                            i. Politics

                                            ii. Quality

                                            iii. Mission

                                             iv. Image

                                              v. Gun

                                                        >Zeglen Bullet Proof Vest

                                b.  Professionalizers

                                              i. The Big Four                

                                                           >Richard Sylvester, chief of DC

                                                           >August Vollmer, chief of Berkley  California

                                                           >William and Robert Pinkerton

                                               ii. Agenda

                                                           >Politics out

                                                           >Merit promotion

                                                           >Training: August Vollmer and Police Academy



    D. Corrections

                1. Reformatory ideals

                2. Juvenile justice

                3. Adult Corrections: State

                            a. Probation

                                        i. Defined

                                        ii. Pros



                                                                        *$'s to imprison per year=220

                                                                         *$'s to place on probation for a year=22

                                         iii.  Problems

                                                            >Judge selection and controlled

                                                            >Work load


                                                            >Conditions of probation

                            b. Parole

                                        i. Defined

                                        ii. Pros

                                                            >Panel of "experts"

                                                            >Parole plan



                                        iii. Problems

                                                            >Wardens dominate

                                                            >Custodial needs dominate

                                                            >Work load

                                                            >Conditions of parole

                            c Prisons

                                        i. Women's prisons

                                        ii. Men

                                                            >Reformatory ideals in place

                                                            >Lock step and stripes are gone

                                                            >More recreation

                                                            >Thomas Osborne's Mutual Welfare League

                                                            > "Work Release" starts in 1913

                                                             > Stateville as example


                             d. Death

                                      i. Anti Capital punishment movement, 1907-1917

                                      ii. Reversals

                4 Adult prisons : Federal

                            a. Leavenworth and McClaughry

                                       i. Will/William West incident

                                       ii. Mutinies 1901,1910

                                       iii. Muckrakers

                            b. Atlanta

                            c. McNeil Island




                                                         Crime and Criminal Justice in the Gangster Era

I  Introduction
A. Defined

           1. Chronological, 1920s, 1930s

           2. Conceptual

                    a. "Roaring Twenties"

                    b.  The Great Depression

B. Themes

          1. Conservatism redo in the 20s

          2. The New Deal

          3. National Crime Crisis

                    a. Prohibition

                    b. Gangster wars

                    c. Syndicate

                    d. Chicago as crime capital

                    e. "New Outlaws"

        4. The new FBI

        5. Federal Prison system

        6. Criminal justice education

C. Some Trivia

        1. Last Public Execution: August, 1936

                    a. Owensboro, Ky

                    b. 20,000 come to see it

                    c. World wide sensation

                            i. Sheriff was a woman

                    d. Black man, 22 years old, for rape and murder

II. Crime in the Gangster Era

1. Ordinary crime

2. Business and Political crime

a. National level
i. President Warren Harding's "Ohio Gang"

ii. William burns and the Bureau of Investigation

iii. Teapot Dome Scandal

b. Local level

i. Chicago and Big Bill Thompson

ii. New York City and Jimmy Walker

3. Workers and Radicalism

          a. Communism

b. Wall Street Bombing, 1920

c. Memorial Day Massacre, Chicago, 1937

4. Vice and Organized Crime

          a. "Crime Tariff"

b.  The "business" of Prohibition

            i. Production

                    >"cutting" booze

                    > Homemade: bath tub gin

            ii. Transportation

                      >"boot legging"

                      > Canada to USA

                      >Web of transport

                      > Teamsters

            iii. Distribution



                      >Road houses

                      >The "Night Club"

c. Illinois : The Sheltons

              i. Scene


                      >"Bloody Willaimson"

            ii. The characters




            iii. East St. Louis

                        >Building an empire

                        >"The Valley"


                        > Gambling

             iv. Challenges

                        >"The Outfit"

                        >KKK and S. Glenn Young

                        >Gang warfare

                                    *Charles Birger

                                     *The Tank

                                      *The Bomber

                          >Honest cops


              v. The Fall

d. Chicago gangs

             i. Sources of the gangs

                            >Old professional criminal gangs: Dion  O'Banion

                            >Neighborhood athletic clubs : Ragen Colts

                            >Ethnic gangs: "Black Hand" groups,  Torrio/Capone

            ii. Gangland competition

                            >Phase 1: 1920/23

                            >Phase 2: 1923/27

                            >Phase 3: 1927+

                                            *St Valentives's Day Massacre

    e. New York

                i. Torrio's return

                ii. Big 6

                            >Lucky Luciano

                            >Meyer Lansky

                            >Dutch Schultz

                            >Bugsy Siegel

                            >Frank Costello

                            >Joey Adonis

                iii. Crisis

                            >Chicago model


                 iv. Torrio solution: syndicate

5. Ethnicity

                a. General= Quota system

                b. KKK

     c. Sacco-Vanzetti, Discuss "Murder in South Braintree"

     d. Scottsboro boys


6. Sensations and Media Events

    a. Loeb and Leopold

    b. St Valentines Day Massacre

    c. Life, career and death of Arnold Rothstein

    d. Lindbergh baby kidnapping, Discuss "The Lindbergh Case"

    e. The "New Outlaws"

    i. Bonnie and Clyde

    ii. "Pretty Boy" Floyd and the Union Station Massacre, 1934

    iii. "Baby Face" Nelson

    iv. John Dillinger

      f. "The Day the Laughter Stopped": "Fatty" Arbuckle incident

     g. Gangster films from Hollywood

7. Public Response
a. Crime Commission movement
i. Chicago Crime Commission

ii. New York City's Seabury Commission

 b. Wickersham Commission and its Reports


III. Criminal Justice

A. Criminology
  a. Legal Approach, Northwestern University

   b. Sociological Approach, University of Chicago

                i. Theories

                            >Social Disorganization

                            >Urban zones

                            >Differential Association

                ii. Figures

                            >Clifford Shaw

                            >Frederick Thrasher

                            >Edwin Sutherland

    c. Political Science

                 i. University of California

                 ii. August Vollmer

                iii. "College cops"

                                >O.W. Wilson

                                >William Wiltberger


   B. Law and Legal System
  1. Law Schools and war against the "irregulars"

         a. Acadmics v. Practitioners

         b. Wall ST v DC

  2. Law and social control

 a. Prohibition

  b. Drugs and the Marihuana Act

  c. Guns and Gun Control

 3. Prosecutor as crime fighter
  a. Thomas Dewey

C. Law Enforcement Punishment

1. Private Police

 2. Federal Police

                a. Treasury

                        i. Bureau of Prohibition, 1927

    ii. IRS

    iii. FBN

                >Harry Anslinger

                >"Reefer Madness"   

b. Bureau of Investigation

     i. Burn's Era


                  >Gaston Means


     ii. Hoover Era

                    >Early years, 1924-1930




                                                        /Before 441 agents and 9 field offices

                                                        /By 1930 30 field offices


                       >Later , 1930-40

                                     *Empire building






                                       *New Outlaws

                                        *Guns and police power


3. State Police

4. Local police

        a. Professionalization

                i. Leaders

                ii. Ordinary officers


                            >College cops


          b. Gun

          c. the Third Degree

          d. Technology

                   i. Car


                                >Traffic control


                   ii. Telephone



                    iii. Radio

                    iv. Science


                                >Crime lab



                                        *August Vollmer

                                        *John Larson

                                        *Leonarde Keeler


                                         *Frye Decision

            e. Mission   

    D. Corrections

           1. Federal

                    a. Crimes

                    b. Federal Bureau of Prisons

                                i. Stanford Bates

                                ii. Training schools

                                iii. SuperMax

            2. State

                    a. Probation

                    b. Parole

                    c. Prisons

                                i. Female institutions

                                ii. Male institutions




                                                                                *Formative years, 1925-1935






                                                                                *Joseph Ragen, 1936+



                                                                                       <Relations to guards

                                                                                        <Relations to inmates

                                                                                        <Relations to the press



                                                                                        Crime and Criminal Justice in The War Years: Hot and Cold


I. Introduction

        A. Definition

        B.  Themes

                    1. Mindset : Pearl Harbor

                    2. War and crime

                    3. Women: Rosy the Riveter to Harriet Nelson

                    4. Communism

                    5. Organized Crime

                    6. Drugs

                    7. Suburbia

                    8. Youth: "Wild Ones" to "Rebels without a Cause"

                    9. Liberalism

                    10. University of California School of Criminology

II. Crime

     A. Conspiracy

                        1. Impact of Pearl Harbor

                        2. A-Bomb

                        3. Flying saucers

                        4. Roswell, NM

                        5. Area 51

        B. Radicals

                        1. Communism

                        2. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

                        3. McCarthy Hearings

        C. Organized Crime

                        1. Havana, Cuba

                        2. Las Vegas, Nevada

                                a. Bugsy Siegel and the Flamingo

                                b. Dunes and the St Louis mob

                                c. Stardust and Chicago

                                d. Caesar's Palace and Hoffa's Teamsters

                                 e. Mobs and movie stars

                        3. Mafia

                                 a. Apalacin meeting

                                 b. Valachi

                                 c. Kefauver investigations

           D. Riots: Zoot suits

           E. Youth

                        1. Wild Ones

                        2. Rebels Without a Cause

            F. Mad Bombers

                        1. George Metsky

                        2. John Graham

            G. William Heirens of Chicago

            H. Marvin Wolfgang's Patterns of Criminal homicide, 1957

III. Criminal Justice

           A. Criminology

                        1. School of Criminology of University of California

                        2. Academic tensions

                                    a. Practitioners

                                     b. Academics

                                     c. Administrative

                         3. Society for Applied Criminology

                                      a. Features

                                       b. The take over

            B. Police

                        1. "GI Joe" as cop

                        2. California preeminence

                                        a. Rush to California

                                        b. Gov Earl Warren

                                        c. August Vollmer and School of Criminology

                                        d. William Parker at LA

                                        e. Hollywood

                                        f. POST

             C. Corrections

                        1. Illinois, Stateville and Ragen

                        2. California

                                        a. Richard McGee


                                                                                       Crime and Justice in the Liberal Era

          I. Introduction
    A. Periodization, 1960s, 1970s

    B. Themes

        1. Dominance of liberalism

        2. Economic prosperity

        3. Race and civil rights

        4. Baby Boomers

        5. Unpopular war

        6. Drug culture

        7. Riots

         8. Birth of a new academic field: criminal justice

         9. Hippies and "summers of love"

II. Crime in the Liberal Era

    A. Crime increases astonishingly

    B. Traditional Crime

            1. General pop^ 13% but crime ^ 148%

            2. Aggravated assault ^ 102%

            3. Rape ^ 116%

            4. Robbery ^ 177%

            5. Burglary ^ 117%

            6. Murder ^ 62%

    C. Business/ political crime

            1. Richard Nixon and Watergate

     D. Radicalism

            1. Communism

            2. Student groups: SDS

      E. Disorder

            1. Racial Riots

                    a. NonViolent Civil Rights

                    b. "Ghetto Riots"

                                i. Watts, Los Angeles (1965)

                                ii. Others

                    c. Rise of Black Panthers

                                i. Fred Hampton and Black Panthers

            2. Student Protests

                    a. Features

                    b. Reasons

                    c. Groups

                                        i. Weathermen

                    d. Democratic National Convention in Chicago

        F. Sensation

              1. Assassinations

                    a. Medgar Evers (1963)

                     b. JFK (1963)

                     c. Malcom X (1965)

                     d. Martin Luther King (1968)

                     e. Robert Kennedy (1968)

             2. Mass/Serial Killers

                     a. Charles Whitman in Austin, Texas

                     b. Richard Speck in Chicago

                     c. Charles Manson in LA

              3. Corruption

                       a. Summerdale scandal in Chicago


II. Criminal Justice in the Liberal Era

        A. Criminology

                1. University of Chicago and The Great Society

                2. University of California and "Professionalism"

                        a. Preeminence of the School of Criminology

                                i. Growth and expansion

                                ii. Issue

                                            >Popularity and the "cheap degree"

                                            >Practitioners and Administrators

                                            >Academic politics

                                 iii. Society for the Advancement of Criminology

                                             >The take over

                                  iv. Society of Police Professors

                            b. Fall of the School

                                    i. O.W. Wilson off to Chicago

                                    ii. Loss of focus

                                    iii. the Academic conundrum

                                    iv. Faculty and the practitioners: loss of real world support

                                    v. Faculty and the students

                                    vi. Liberalism of faculty: Tony Platt story

                                    vii. Faculty and administration

                                     viii. The School and Campus atmosphere

                                      ix.  School and Governor Reagan

                                       x. Alternative: rise of state schools

                3. Politics

                         a. Local issue v. National gov

                         b. Katzenbach Commission

                                       i. Reports

                                       ii. The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society

                         c. Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (1968)

                                       i. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)

                                                    >Hardware program

                                                    >Software program

                                        ii. Law Enforcement Education Program (LEEP)




                                                    >Proliferation of programs

                                                            *Turf battles over $

                                                            *Elite schools aloof

                                                            *Flagship schools aloof

                                                            *State schools and compass colleges

                                                            *Community college movement

                            d. Educational problems

                                           i. Curriculum

                                                      >"hands on": vocational model

                                                      >Academic: social science model

                                                      > Managerial

                                            ii. Campus problems

                                                       >Popularity problems

                                                       >Professorate: interdisciplinary

                                                       >Cheap degrees: Mickey Mouse Major

    B. Law and Legal Profession

                1. Law Schools and ABA

                2. "Due Process Revolution"

                            a. Warren Court and Criminal justice

                                            i. Mapp v Ohio (1961)

                                            ii,. Gideon v Wainwright (1963)

                                            iii. Escobido v Illinois (1964)

                                             iv. Miranda v Arizona (1966)

                3. Law

                            a. Civil Rights Act

                            b. Equal opportunity

    C.  Law Enforcement

                 1. Federal

                            a. Secret Service and Dallas

                            b.  Hoover's FBI

                                            i. Public Enemies problem

                                            ii. COINTELPRO

                            c. DEA and drugs

                  2. Local police

                             a. Problems

                                            i. Crime increase

                                            ii. Disorder increase

                                            iii. Corruption


                                                                    >Serpico in NUC

                                             iv. Brutality

                                                                    >National Democratic Convention in Chicago

                                              v. Personnel

                                                                     >White male dominate

                                                                     >Affirmative Action policies

                                                                                        *Black Men

                                                                                        * Females

                                                                      >College cop problem

                                                                      >Salary/ benefits: police Union movement

                                               vi. Paramilitary tactics SWAT

                                                vii. Patrol and Kansas City Study

                             b. Responses

                                                  i. Professionalism: top-down, bottom up

                                                 ii.  Police unions

                                                 iii. Civilian Review

                                                  iv. Team policing


    D. Corrections

                1. Prisons increase

                2. Violence

                             a. Inmate on inmate

                             b. Inmate on staff

                             c. Staff on inmate

                             d. Riot: Attica

                             e. "Soledad Story"

                3. Rehabilitation to "just deserts"

                4. Prisoner Rights Movement

                              a. Supreme Court's historic "hands off"

                              b. Hands on

                                                     i. Religion

                                                    ii. Conditions

                                                    iii. Expression

                                                    iv. Discipline

               5. Capital punishment

                               a. Forms

                               b. Caryl Chessman

                               c. "Moratorium"

                                                      i. Furman v. Georgia

                               d. Gary Gillmore in Utah

                               e. Lethal injection



                                     Crime and Criminal Justice in the Conservative Era

        I. Introduction
    A.  Periodization, 1980s, 1990s

    B. Themes

         1. Conservatism returns

         2. Get tough on crime: Broken Windows

         3. Professionalization of police

         4. Spread of federal criminal justice

         5. Popular culture and criminal justice

         6. Criminal Justice higher education


II. Crime

      A. Ordinary

           1. Drug wars

                    a. Supply side

                    b. Demand side.

           2. Gangs

                     a. Crips and bloods

           3. Intimate violence

                     a. Rape and college campuses

                     b. William Kennedy Smith

                     c. Mike Tyson

       B. Serial /mass killers

             1. Green river Killer

             2. John Wayne Gacy

             3. Joel Rifkin

             4. Jeffery Dahmer

             5. Richard Ramirez "Night Stalker"

             6. Wayne Williams

        C. White Supremacist Groups

              1. Ideology

              2. Conspiracy theory revisited

              3. Extent

              4. Oklahoma City 1995: Timothy McVeigh

        D. Political/business crime

               1. Savings and loan scandals

               2. Insider trading: Ivan Boskey

        E. Terrorism

               1. World Trade Center NYC  1993

               2. Pipe bombs at Atlanta Olympic festivities 1996

        F. Internet and identity theft

        G . Crime as sensation O J Simpson 1994


III. Criminal Justice in the Conservative Era

        A. Criminology

        B. Law and Legal Culture

                1. Law schools

                2. Posse Comitatus of 1878 revisited

        C. Law Enforcement

                1. Federals

                        a. FBI and Drugs

                        b  DEA

                                i. Supply side and foreign entanglements

                                        >Production zone: Columbia, Peru, Bolivia

                                        >Smuggling zone: Cariibbean, Central America

                                        >Border zone

                                ii. Demand side


                                        > RICO and forfeiture


                        c. ATF: Waco Texas

                2. Local police

                            a. Problems

                                        >Brutality and Rodney King 1992

                                        >Riots in Miami


                            b. Solutions

                                        >Greater stress on education

                                        >"Community policing"




       D. Corrections

                1. "Just deserts"

                2. Attack on indetermancy and parole

                3. Warehousing due to

                           a. Recidivism

                           b. Zero tolerance

                4. Maxi-maxi

                5. Lock down

                6. Growth of prisons

                            a. By 1990 were 900 state and 70 prisons

                7. Privatization movement



A. Themes Re-visited
B. Value of History in Modern Policy
C. Enlightened Bureaucrats
D. Informed Citizens

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