Introduction and Overview
Language and Composition is one of the Inner Core courses that all incoming freshmen are required to take. The other courses are Language and Communication, Foundations of Inquiry, Introductory Math and Introductory Science. These courses together will help you develop critical thinking skills that will serve you well throughout your university career and beyond. Writing plays a crucial role in developing university-level skills. Language and Composition will help you in your academic writing and will prepare you for future development as a writer in your chosen profession. The skills you develop in this class will reinforce and complement the skills you are developing in your other General Education courses and will underpin your future development as a writer. In Language and Composition, you will learn strategies for various kinds of writing situations, and you will explore how and why these strategies are successful.
In this course you will accomplish these tasks:
1. Discovering Writing Topics (Goal I. A. & Goal IV. A-I below)
You will discover ideas for writing six or seven essays. This discovery process can take several forms:
a. reading essays in The Mercury Reader and writing in response to the questions following the essays or discussing the essays with a group of your fellow students to discover new topics from your readings of the essays;
b. doing your own research in the library and on the WEB for new and interesting ideas for writing;
c. discovering topics of interest through class discussions and workshops;
d. linking topics to your other General Education courses, especially Foundations of Inquiry.
2. Exploring Topics (Goals I. B. & II. A. below)
You will expand your ideas for writing through discussion with your fellow students and with your teacher, and you will also expand your ideas through your own research and through discovery writing. Discovery writing means that you write about a topic to find out what you think about it and where you might want to go with it.
At this point you may begin to think about the situations for your essays.
Who will be the intended readers?
Where might such a paper be published?
These questions define the "rhetorical situation"; that is, your role as writer, the intended audience for the essay, and the place it might eventually be published.
(A word of warning: deciding on the rhetorical situation may come early in the development of a paper, but you may also want to spend time thinking and writing about a topic that interests you before you decide where it might be "published.")
3. Drafting Papers (Goal V. A-I below)
You will draft (write) your essays both in class and out of class. No one can say exactly how many drafts it takes to "finish" a essay, but most essays will need more than two drafts. You will continue to draft and redraft an essay as you get responses from readers and as you rethink you own ideas and arguments.
Most of us think our essays are finished after the first drafts, however, readers will usually let us know that there is still much more to be done. Even reading the drafts ourselves a few days later usually tells us that more needs to be done. Thus, you will give your drafts to your fellow writers and to your teacher with your own questions about how you might improve the draft, and then you will rethink the draft in light of those comments and your own judgments.
4. Responding to Papers (Goals I. C., II. C., III. A., IV. A-I., & Goal VI. A-D. below)
When you finish a draft, you will write questions that you would like a reader (another student in class or your teacher) to answer. These questions should be about development, intended audience or possible place of publication (forum), and support.
Then you will give your draft and your questions to your readers. In exchange you will read papers written by others in your class (or even by your teacher, some teachers bring in drafts of papers they are writing, too!), and you will respond after your reading, answering the writer’s questions, and making any suggestions you can for further research or for major changes in the paper.
5. Revising Your Drafts (Goals II. B., III. B., IV. A-H., VII. 7 below)
When your readers have returned your draft to you, the most difficult and exciting part of your writing begins. You should know first that even the most experienced writers can feel a little sea sick at this point. If you have good readers, they will have suggested additions, deletions, rearrangements, and new sources for your paper. They may also have given you ideas of their own that could change the voice or the argument in your draft.
Be calm and take a deep breath. You might even want to let the comments rest for a day or so. Then read over them carefully, perhaps asking the writers what they intended by some suggestions. Then plan your revisions. Which comments will you use? Which ones will you reject or save till later? At this point you are ready to begin revising. Remember the word means re-vision—to see again. That is your task to see your original draft in a new light.
This process can take quite a while, and it can go on for a long time. The poet William Auden said that a poem is never finished, only abandoned. You will keep working on the revision of your drafts throughout the semester, tinkering, rethinking, re-tinkering—until you run out of time.
Note: This stage is NOT about proofreading or copy editing.
6. Reflecting on Your Writing (Goal VII. A-E below)
After each round of drafting is "finished" you will write about how you developed the current draft and about how you used readers’ suggestions, how you changed the drafts in response to the readers, or why you chose not to use readers’ suggestions.
Sometimes these reflections will trigger yet another draft as you rethink what you have done in the writing and revision of the paper.
This part in the composition of the paper is important because you will use these reflections in your last essay for the course.
7. Copyediting (Goal III. A below)
Perfect copy is important. After the drafting, responding, and redrafting, you must be ready to let a essay go—at least for this round of revisions or for this semester. That means that you have to give it a final dusting to make sure that it works stylistically and that it is free of pesky errors that will irritate readers.
Your teacher will probably suggest a copyediting party for each essay and for your portfolio at the end of the semester. Three or four of your classmates will join you in combing over your drafts to be sure that all style and surface (grammar, punctuation, word choice) glitches are found and fixed.
You may not be a perfect grammarian or copy editor, but you will learn to work together with others to turn in as-perfect-as-possible copy.
Course Guide for Language and Composition
The Mercury Reader
Course Policies (attendance, grading, late work, plagiarism, etc.)
The Writing Program policies and guidelines set forth in the policy section of the Course Guide for English 101: Language and Composition apply in this course. Basically, the course policies boil down to "come to class, do the writing as it is assigned, work hard, and be thoroughly involved in the workings of the class."
NOTE: Everything you write must be kept on disk. You are responsible for all your writing, and all of it must be available on disk at the end of the semester, including questions about your drafts, drafts, responses to your drafts, and your responses to others’ drafts.
Keep two (2) disk copies as well as the classroom disk copy at all times, and keep at least one copy of your own after you hand in a disk to the Writing Program at the end of the semester.
In Language and Composition you will learn to:
I. Develop strategies for critical inquiry
A. Be familiar with and practice strategies for generating ideas or exploring topics or problems.
1. Develop strategies for connecting previous experience, knowledge, and beliefs to new or foreign experiences, ideas, and beliefs; be aware of assumptions you have when encountering new texts, ideas, and situations
2. Learn systematic strategies for exploring topics or ideas. Identify ways of finding relevant arguments and/or supporting evidence from sources
B. Develop some critical and formal strategies for addressing a variety of rhetorical situations
1. Understand the role of context in determining what can be taken for granted in a given writing situation and how one might connect with the beliefs of the intended audience
2. Be aware of possible objections to one's position and develop strategies for dealing with them
3. Develop appropriate rhetorical devices for presenting written arguments in a clearly organized fashion
4. Understand the difference between rhetorical effectiveness and logical correctness and the social and personal implications of this difference
2. Recognize the difference between expressing an opinion and giving support for a position
C. Develop strategies to analyze the rhetoric of various types of texts, including your own writing, others' writings, and nonverbal texts
1. Be able to distinguish between an argument's conclusions, the reasons given for those conclusions, and its assumptions, tacit and explicit
2. Produce texts that are logically sound and be able to detect logical weaknesses in the writing of others
3. See the implications or entailments of various positions, arguments, or beliefs
II. Apply the rhetorical principles governing the effective presentation of ideas in writing to a range of audiences for a range of purposes
A. Understand why it is important when writing to be aware of one's purpose and intended forum
1. Understand there are numerous discourse communities and forums for writing, with differing conventions for what count as appropriate topics, evidence, sources, organization, style, etc.
2. Understand there are relationships in persuasive writing among logical appeals, emotional appeals, and appeals rooted in the perceived credibility of the author.
B. Learn how to analyze differing rhetorical situations and develop critical and formal strategies for dealing with them, including strategies for revising and editing writing done by themselves and by others, to meet the expectations of different readers and forums, with attention to matters of correctness and convention as well as broader rhetorical concerns
C. Explore and practice writing for three rather different general forums: writing for the general public, for academic courses, and for yourselves in support of learning
III. Follow the principles and employ the rules pertinent to the effective formal arrangement of ideas in writing
A. Understand how to use standard punctuation, grammar and spelling in public writing
B. Develop strategies for revising and editing writing, both your own and others, to improve clarity and organization
IV. Critically read various kinds of texts
A. Analyze and discuss rhetorical strategies that various texts employ and evaluate their appropriateness for the ideas presented
B. Evaluate the quality of arguments, explicit and implicit, in texts
C. Understand that texts are produced for a variety of different purposes and audiences
D. Distinguish between an argument's basic assumptions and its conclusion
E. Make a personal judgment of the accuracy, value, and truthfulness of a text
F. Grasp the validity of a text's message and know when and how to verify it with other sources
G. Detect author bias as well as inaccuracies that might not be traceable to bias
H. Understand how the reader's personal bias influences text comprehension
I. Develop criteria for judging an author's qualifications in the area he or she has written
V. Incorporate what you learn from reading into your own thinking and writing
A. Learn to write for private purposes in reaction to reading
B. Understand what you read in the context in which it was written
C. Summarize and paraphrase several kinds of texts
D. Discuss the relationship among texts, both among texts that share similar perspectives and ones that oppose or modify one another
E. Develop writing strategies that relate new readings to prior knowledge and beliefs
F. Integrate ideas and evidence from other sources into a cohesive written presentation
G. Develop some sensibilities about why and how to do further reading and research
H. Understand that there are conventions for citing and documenting source materials
I. Develop skills in using their private writing about reading to serve as a basis for creating various kinds of public writing about reading
VI. Develop your abilities to write collaboratively
A. Develop an understanding that the writing process is not a solitary one but rather a dynamic, collaborative one
B. Develop an understanding of how collaborative texts are produced
C. Develop an understanding of how to use discussions and written exchanges to generate ideas for writing
D. Develop strategies for responding to, editing, and revising both your own and other's writing
VII. Be able to understand the relationship between language and learning
A. Develop an understanding that writing is thinking
B. Develop an understanding that writing about reading affects your understanding of the reading
C. Become aware of your writing process and be able to critique it
D. Recognize that you may write to explore and explain ideas and experiences as well as to influence beliefs and action or demonstrate knowledge
E. Recognize that the relationship between language and learning is both assisted and shaped by technologies
General Schedule and Plan for the Course
The course goals are noted throughout the syllabus so that you will get an idea of how they relate to your assigned work. In this course, you will write or substantially revise an average of 1000 words per week which, along with readings, will probably mean six to nine hours of out of work out of class. Your writing will include drafting, asking questions of readers, responding to other writers, and revising. In all, you will produce seven "finished" five to seven page papers. One of these papers will be a sample University Writing Examination, and one will be your final reflective essay.
Part 1: Introduction to the course, to course tools, and to one another;
beginning to draft essays and respond to writing
Strategies and Skills
* Discovering topics for writing through collaboration and writing
* Using reading to develop ideas
* Getting acquainted and writing discovery drafts
* Developing peer reading and writing groups
The First Week--discovering topics (Goal I. A., Goal VI, & Goal VI)
1. Meet others in the class and get acquainted with the computer classrooms.
2. Read "What is English 101?" in The Course Guide. Bring questions to raise in class.
3. Write a brief introduction of yourself for the class, 100-200 words. You won't be able to tell your whole life story in that brief a space, nor will you be able to explain every single interest you have. Instead, choose a few things (or maybe even just one) that will help the class get to know you better and that you'd like us to know. You could write about your hobbies, your politics, your favorite books, your favorite music or movies, how you like to spend free time, your aspirations, the people or practices that get you most upset, causes that are important to you, or whatever.
4. Browse through The Mercury Reader to discover whether your interests as suggested in your introduction of yourself fit with any of the essays in the reader. You may want to read some of the essays, or your peer group may read some of the essays together to help you discover topics for writing.
5. Using your introductory essay and The Mercury Reader, begin to discuss paper topics with your teacher and fellow students. Write a discovery draft on one of these topics. Continue to work on this draft over the weekend. Read the "Revision" section in The Mercury Reader.
The Second Week--drafting and revising (Goals I. B., II. A., & V. A-I)
Strategies and Skills
* Collaborating to generate ideas
* Discussing readings to generate ideas
* Writing a full draft
* Responding to peers
1. Meet with your student group to discuss the paper drafts you have completed. Work to develop questions you may have about your draft; then give the draft and the questions to a fellow student or two.
In my draft, I argued that drug use ought not be a crime (see questions on "Letter from Birmingham Jail" questions in The Mercury Reader); can you suggest sources that I could use to support these arguments with more evidence?
Since I wrote about my values and attitudes about the things I own (see "Dumpster Diving" essay questions), can you give me any of your experiences that would provide contrast with mine?
Keep copies of your questions as well as of your draft.
2. Next, you will read a fellow student’s paper and respond to the questions asked. Note the kinds of responses in "Revision" in Mercury. Make revision suggestions that will alter the draft substantially. Begin to write out answers to the questions that the writer has asked you about the paper. Be very specific in your answers, and try to find interesting ways to rethink the writer’s draft. Keep copies of your responses to your fellow students’ papers.
3. Consider carefully the suggestions for change that your readers have given you. Rewrite your draft using those suggestions. Make substantive changes in the draft, even if you think it is fine as is. This stage of writing is about rethinking and getting a new vision of an idea.
4. Have a copy-editing party with your peer reading group to practice making perfect copy for this draft.
5. Hand the draft into your teacher at the end of the week with more questions about the paper for your teacher.
6. Write about the experiences you have had with this first essay. What did you learn? How? What did you change? Why? What did you suggest that your fellow students change in their papers? Why? Keep this reflective writing.
The Third Week--using readings to write (Goals I. A., V. A-I, and VI)
At this point you have one paper drafted once. You also have several topics that you tentatively chose in Week One. Return to The Mercury Reader and to your discussion groups to decide what your next paper topic will be. This time keep in mind that the paper needs to rest on readings and other sources as well as on your own interests and thinking. Read the sections on reading and writing in The Mercury Reader.
1. Brainstorm with your group and begin to narrow your topic. If you are still perplexed about how to focus your topic, spend more time researching the topic to discover whether you are indeed interested in it.
2. Begin to draft your paper to discover whether the topic is really practical for writing. When the draft is ready, ask your group questions about ways to improve it or about areas that you find perplexing.
3. Redraft the paper as many times as necessary to answer your own questions and to use the suggestions of your fellow students. This process will thread on into Week Four.
The Fourth Week--focusing on audience (Goals I. B., II., V., & VII)
1. Begin to talk with your group about how this paper fits a particular audience. Who would read it? Who wants to know what you have to say? What have you to offer or how can you convince this audience? A good way to approach the audience question is to consider what publication (or forum) usually publishes essays on your topic. Who reads Time, The New Republic, Science News, Psychology Today? If your topic is in one of these areas, you should think about aiming at the readers who buy and read these periodicals.
2. Redraft the paper to fit the appropriate forum. Consider whether additional research and reference is necessary now for the new forum. Give the draft to your group, asking questions about audience and forum.
3. At the end of the week, have a copy-editing party, and submit the completed draft.
4. Write about the way your wrote this paper. What did you add to your process that was different than the first paper? Why? How did you use the suggestions of your group and of others who read the drafts? What did you learn about yourself as a writer? How? Save these comments.
Part 2: Critically analyzing positions and arguments using data and research
Strategies and Skills
* Critically analyzing readings, positions, or arguments
* Analyzing published nonfiction texts for their persuasive strategies, their methods of organization and development, and their relationships to other texts.
* Relating different ideas, texts, or experiences to one another.
* Setting up a personal error analysis program, proofreading and editing
* Responding to peers: "This is what I was thinking as I read."
* Responding through role-playing: "This is how your intended audience might respond."
* Peer proofreading.
The Fifth Week--deepening investigations (Goal I. A., Goal IV, & Goal V)
1. Read one of the units in The Mercury Reader and analyze the differing viewpoints. How are these readings like and unlike the papers you have written so far in the course? Write about those likenesses and differences and discuss them with your group.
2. Begin to draft a paper on one of your earlier topics or on the issue you have read about in The Mercury Reader. Think carefully about how your reading affects your writing. How have the authors your have read in the text used other writing?
3. Formulate questions on your draft, especially noting questions about how you used your analysis of your reading. Exchange and respond with your group. Rewrite over the weekend.
The Sixth Week--further research (Goals I. B., VI., & V)
1. By now your draft of paper three will be in good shape. You still will want to do more research to solidify your use of the readings. Ask your peer readers for ideas on how to enrich your text. Remember to be specific with your questions.
2. Read fellow students’ papers not only to respond to the questions asked but to find ways to enrich and expand your own ideas. Write out answers to the questions that the writers have asked. Reminder: Keep copies of your responses to your fellow students’ papers.
3. Consider carefully the suggestions for adding new materials that your readers have given you. Spend time researching the additional materials before you rewrite your draft using those suggestions.
4. Rewrite the draft once again; then have a copy-editing party with your peer reading group to practice making perfect copy for this draft.
5. Hand the draft in to your teacher at the end of the week with more questions about the paper for your teacher.
6. Write about the experiences you have had responding to readings. How was this writing different from your first three papers? Did you work differently? How? Why? What did you suggest that your fellow students add or change as they used outside readings? Why? Keep this reflective writing.
The Seventh Week--using observation and data (Goals I. A., V. A-I, and VI)
1. Begin by reflecting on what you have learned as you wrote and revised your first three papers. At this point you should have drafts of three papers, your reflections on the drafting process, and your teachers’ and classmates’ responses to those drafts. Brainstorm with your group about what you have learned about writing in those three papers. Paper four will give you a chance to do research beyond the library and the WEB. You will do investigative research on one of the topics you chose in week one. If you find these topics don’t work, it’s time to brainstorm again.
2. Lay out a rough sketch of an investigative report. One example of such a paper would be the report of a survey questioning a cross-section of the university community about interest in starting a dance exercise club. Who would join? Who would not? This kind of paper might resemble a TV viewing survey. Your teacher will help you come up with good ideas for this survey research. The steps in this paper involve the following:
a. Design a research study including a questionnaire or observational plan.
b. Gather data.
c. Evaluate your results.
d. Draft the paper and write questions for readers. Get classmate responses.
3. Redraft the paper using the suggestions as many times as it takes to make sense of the data and produce a paper that uses the data to speak to a concerned audience. You will want to use peer and teacher responses at this point since both your classmates and your teacher will have experiences that may contribute to the data in research. At the very least, they will be able to see gaps in your interpretation that need fixing.
The Eighth Week—using writing to create and share knowledge (Goals I. B., II., V., & VII)
1. Does this paper fit a particular audience. Who would read it? Who wants to know what you have to say? What have you to offer from your observations and data? Develop revision questions for your classmates that investigate these issues.
2. Redraft the paper to respond to your own thinking and others’ suggestions. Consider whether your data are sufficient. What other information might you find? Do you need to go to the library or WEB to support your own data? Do a search of similar studies. Redraft the paper.
3. At the end of the week, have a copy-editing party and submit the completed draft.
Write about the way your wrote this paper. What did you add to your process that was different the papers that did not use survey or observational data? Why? How did your questions to your readers differ? Why? Was it easier or harder to imagine a forum? Why? Save these comments.
The Ninth Week--understanding audience and forums (Goals I. A., II., & V)
Strategies and Skills
* Analyzing audience needs and expectations
* Analyzing information or observations or cultural phenomena as texts
* The influence of purposes of writing on form and content
* Forum analysis
* Responding: writing a reaction; asking questions.
1. You are now beginning work on your fifth paper. Stop to assess what you know. At the beginning, audience was not an important factor in writing until late in the drafting process. This paper will take aim at a particular audience. Go back to one of your topics that has a controversial or persuasive edge--or find a topic that will inform a particular audience about a new or interesting idea or discovery. Work with your group to answer the following question: Who would be an audience for such a topic? For example, if you wanted to argue that organic farming is better and healthier than current commercial farming, whom would you want to persuade? Farmers, consumers, parents, physicians?
2. Begin to plan a draft of a paper on one of these topics, noticing how focusing on an audience affects your writing. For example, Steven Gould, the essayist, often investigates a theory that was once held by scientists. He then explains to his audience )usually non-scientists) how that theory was overthrown by new discoveries or new ways of viewing old information. He helps his audience to see in new ways or to understand ideas that might otherwise be too complex. How can your do that for a reader?
3. Formulate questions on your draft, focusing on whether your draft fits your proposed audience. Exchange and respond with your group. Rewrite over the weekend.
The Tenth Week--refining audience (Goals I. B., VI., & V)
1. Your new draft will be closer to your attempt to write to your audience, but you will still need to think carefully about purpose.
Do you want your audience to learn something new?
To understand a new idea?
To do something differently than in the past?
To believe something different?
The difficulties in focusing your paper increase as your purpose moves from one to another of the questions listed here. It may be fairly easy to tell someone about new cancer research or new ways of growing disease-resistant corn. It is much harder to explain to someone how to work a new physics problem and understand its meaning. And it is much harder still to persuade someone to begin to wear a seatbelt when the person has never done so before. Finally, it is practically impossible to persuade people to believe something different from their current beliefs; think of the folks who were executed in the Hundred Years War for disagreeing about religion. Thus, you need to think carefully when you decide what you want your audience to know, understand, do, or believe. You may that you want to alter your topic or find a more manageable topic when you begin to consider these questions.
2. Redraft your paper and give the new copy to members of your group with questions about your intended audience and purpose. Write out answers to the questions that the writers have asked. Reminder: Keep copies of your responses to your fellow students’ papers.
3. Consider carefully the suggestions for adaptations to your proposed audience. Rewrite the draft once again.
4. Have a copy-editing party with your peer reading group to practice making perfect copy for this draft.
5. Hand the draft into your teacher at the end of the week with more questions about the paper for your teacher.
6. Write about the experiences you have had adapting your topic to audience and purpose. How was this writing different from your first four papers? Why? Did you work differently? How? Why? What did you suggest that your fellow students add or change to adapt to their audiences and purposes? Why? Think carefully about the subject of audience once again. How does it change as an essay develops? Keep this reflective writing.
The Eleventh Week--writing for evaluation (Goals I., II., & V)
Strategies and Skills
* Analyzing readings rapidly
* Quickly organizing ideas
* Drafting quickly
* Planning revisions
* Using proofreading symbols
1. Your sixth paper will be a facsimile of the University Writing Examination. This activity will give you time to practice taking the exam and learn how to do as good a job as possible on the many essay examinations you will take in your university courses. Spend some i your group talking about the attitudes you all have toward essay examinations. What do you like about them? What don’t you like? Write about your reactions and discuss your reactions.
2. Write a sample University Examination. Then get together with your group and talk about your essays. Ask others in your group questions you have about the essay you wrote and give feedback on their questions.
3. Work through the revision section of the examination with your group. How does that section relate to the revision work you have done so far in this class? The revision section is the most important part of the exam, so spend time talking about you and your group could have improved this section of the exam.
4. Write reflectively about the essay you wrote. How was it like the other papers you have written so far? How did it differ? Which kind of writing do you prefer to do? Some people prefer "hot" (one-shot) exam writing, and other like to reflect and refine their writing. Which kind of writing do you prefer? Why?
The Twelfth Week--Reflecting on what you have done (Goals VII)
1. So far you have written six papers, each time reflecting on what you have done as you have composed, discussed, revised, and revised again. Now begin to draft a paper in which you reflect on what you have learned as you have written the first six papers. Address the following questions but not in this order. In other words, write a coherent essay about yourself as writer.
* What kinds of questions did you ask your readers about each paper? Why?
* How did they respond to your questions?
* How did you use their suggestions in revision? Did you reject any suggestions? Why?
* What kinds of questions did you ask your teacher about the papers?
* How did you use your teacher’s suggestions in revision?
* How did you respond to your group members’ questions? Why?
* What did you contribute to their revisions? Why or why not?
* What did you learn by contributing to their papers?
* How have you changed as a writer this semester?
2. Your reflective essay should also include an analysis of a paper you have written for another class this semester. The paper may be a Foundation of Inquiry paper which you expanded for this class, or it may one you wrote for some other class you took this semester, including a beginning class in your major. How was writing this paper like and unlike the writing you have done in Language and Composition? How has this writing helped you to grow as a writer?
3. Give your reflective essay to your group with questions about your reflections on your own writing. Be specific about what you ask.
4. Redraft your reflective essay in light of your group members’ suggestions. Hand in your draft to your teacher with questions for revision.
The Thirteenth-Fifteenth Weeks--revising once again (Goal VII)
1. Your teacher will give you back your draft of your reflective essay. You will also have the drafts of the first six papers. Now you will have a chance to reflect on the whole body of your writing. Reread all your drafts and decide on four (not including the reflective essay) that you want to revise for your final portfolio.
2. All the papers will be included in your portfolio, but you will want to highlight four to which you have given intensive final attention. After picking those four, reread them again. Give the last drafts of each paper to your group members with further questions for revision.
3. After you have read their suggestions for revision (you will also have your teacher’s final revision suggestions), redraft each paper once again. At this point, you may decide to change the paper radically, perhaps changing the intended audience and purpose or changing the kinds of evidence and information you use in the paper. You will have enough distance from the earlier drafts to be able to reflect intensively on the additional changes.
4. Continue revising your papers until you have rethought them thoroughly. Then rewrite you reflectively essay in light of these last revisions.
5. Finally, end the semester with one last proofreading party. The entire portfolio should be error-free. Keep reading and rereading one another’s papers until the style is smooth and all errors have been found and removed. Then submit your portfolio to your teacher.
Remember: Turn in all seven papers (five or more pages each). Be sure that four plus the reflective essay have been revised and proofread to perfection for the portfolio. Hand in hard copy and a disk copy. Keep hard copy and a disk copy (or two).