Sources

Appears on Courses Page Photograph of baskets from Heard Museum: Native Cultures and Arts; available from http://www.heard.org/search/index.php; Internet; accessed 17 August 2004.
Appears on Women's History Links Page

Photograph of feedsack from America's Quilting History: Feedsacks: Frugal and Fun, ca. 1840-1890; available from http://www.womenfolk.com/quilting_history/feedsacks.htm; Internet; accessed 19 August 2004.

Appears on Resources for Current Issues Page
Photograph of Amish quilt square from America 's Quilting History: Amish Quilts: Beauty in Simplicity; available from http://www.womenfolk.com/quilting_history/amish.htm; Internet; accessed 17 August 2004.
Appears on Homepage
Painting by Georgia O'Keeffe; "View from my Studio, New Mexico" 1930. Private Collection; American Studies at the University of Virginia; available from http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA02/freed/okeeffe/desert.html; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.
Appears on Homepage
Photograph from Chicanas.com; "Las Lechugueras," Juana Alicia ©1983, World Rights Reserved.  Acrylic mural on stucco, 20' x 50', located at 24th & York Streets, San Francisco Mission District; Internet; available from http://www.chicanas.com/cultura.html; Internet; accessed 17 August 2004.
Appears on Professional Information Page
Photograph of rugs from Heard Museum: Native Cultures and Arts; available from http://www.heard.org/shop-caring.php; Internet; accessed 17 August 2004.
Appears on History 112 Page
Photograph of basket dance celebration from Heard Museum: Native Cultures and Arts; available from http://www.heard.org/cob.php; Internet; accessed 17 August 2004.
Appears on History 112 Page
"Engraving of an African-American Marriage, 1866"; Newberry Library Collections; available from http://www.newberry.org/collections/overview.html#; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.
Appears on History 112 Maps Page "Portrait of Chinese American Woman and Children" ca. 1910; "Shades of L.A. Collection," Los Angeles Public Library; available from http://catalog1.lapl.org/cgi-bin/cw_cgi?fullRecord+14219+968+21889+67+0; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.
Appears on History 112 Maps Page Photograph of "Five Amish Children Posed, Standing, Outdoors" by A. Aubrey Bodine, ca. 1953. Copyright of gelatin silver print, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-99492 (58); "When They were Young: A Photographic Retrospective of Childhood," Library of Congress; available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/young/images/y58-3b45534r.jpg; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.
Appears on History 112 Assignments Page Photograph of "Boy Working in Factory, Alexandria, Virginia" by Lewis Wickes Hine, 1911. Copyright of gelatin silver print, Prints and Photographs Division, (24); "When They were Young: A Photographic Retrospective of Childhood," Library of Congress; available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/young/images/y24.jpg; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.
Appears on Citation Guidelines Page

"This antidraft poster features singer and activist Joan Baez (left) with her sisters."

Photomechanical lithograph entitled Girls Say Yes to Boys Who Say No ca. 1968 , by Unidentified Postermaker.106.7 x 74.9 cm (42 x 29 1/2 in.), National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, gift of William Mears, photographed by Larry Gates; Posters American Style: Advice to Americans; available from http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/posters/objects/aa-index.html; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

Appears on Citation Guidelines Page

“In Havana 's Cerro district, a young girl looks out from a peep window in a door.”

Margaret Randall, Women Brave in the Face of Danger: Photographs of and Writings by Latin and North American Women (Trumansburg, New York: The Crossing Press, 1985).

Appears on Citation Guidelines Page

Photomechanical lithograph entitled Save Our Earth, 1995, by Jennifer Morla of Morla Design, Inc. in San Francisco. 89.2 x 59.7 cm (35 1/8 x 23 1/2 in.), Smithsonian American Art Museum, gift of the Jennifer Morla, Morla Design, Inc., San Francisco,© 1997 Morla Design, Inc., San Francisco; Posters American Style: Advice to Americans; available from http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/posters/objects/aa-index.html; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

Appears on History 249 Page

"Salt of the Earth is based on a 1950 strike by zinc miners in Silver City, New Mexico."

Photograph of "Salt of the Earth" movie poster from Chicanas.com; available from http://www.chicanas.com/cultura.html; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 249 Page

I Married a Communist , movie poster, 1950. In this Hollywood movie, an evil subversive blackmails a shipping executive with a shady past, while fellow communists fool longshoremen into striking. This sensationalistic treatment of the ‘communist threat' merges the familiar image of the gangster with the malevolent Soviet Union. Like most anticommunist films, I Married a Communist was commercially unsuccessful."

Appears on History 249 Page

Photomechanical lithograph entitled Where Every Boy Can Dream of Being President, from the series "This Is America," 1942, Fred G. Korth (photographer). 91.7 x 61 cm (36 1/8 x 24 in.), National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, gift of the Sheldon-Claire Company, photographed by Larry Gates; Posters American Style: Advice to Americans; available from http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/posters/ objects/aa-index.html; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

Appears on History 249 Maps Page

“To preserve law and order against protesters during the 1968 Democratic Convention, Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley (center ) mobilized twelve thousand police officers. But in what a federal commission called a ‘police riot,' the officers overreacted and used tear gas and clubs to stop protesters from marching to the convention hall.” (Collection of Philip J. and Suzanne Schiller)

Appears on History 249 Maps Page

Offset lithograph entitled Boycott Grapes: Support the United Farm Workers Union, 1973, by Xavier Viramontes, printed by striking farmworkers. 60 x 44.6 cm (23 5/8 x 17 5/8 in.), Smithsonian American Art Museum, gift of Tomás Ybarra-Frausto,© Xavier Viramontes; Posters American Style: Advice to Americans; available from http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/posters/objects/aa-index.html; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

Appears on History 249 Assignments Page

“Calling their movement ‘Red Power,' these American Indian activists dance in 1969 while ‘reclaiming' Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. Arguing that an 1868 Sioux treaty entitled them to possession of unused federal lands, the group occupied the island until mid-1971.” (Ralph Crane, LIFE Magazine © Time, Inc.)

Appears on History 249 Assignments Page

Silkscreen print entitled Get a Life, Get a Bike, 1993, by Doug Minkler. 33 x 48.3 cm (13 x 19 in.); Posters American Style: Advice to Americans; available from http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/posters/objects/aa-index.html; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

" Oil painting by New York artist Thomas Slatterwhite Noble, 1869. The painting won a silver medal at the 1869 Cincinnati Industrial Exposition. Noble gained a reputation for his dramatic paintings of abolitionist subjects, and later turned to the Salem witch trials for another powerful moral theme. A tradition in the Noble family holds that the model for Witch Hill was a Cincinnati librarian who was a descendant of a woman who was executed in the Salem witch trials."

"Witch Hill," or "The Salem Martyr," Thomas Slatterwhite Noble 1835 - 1907. By James D. Birchfield, Albert Boime, and William J. Hennessey. Lexington: University of Kentucky Art Museum. Collection of the New York Historical Society, 1988; "Salem Witch Trials: Documentary Archive and Transcription Project"; available from http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/salem/images/noblemartyr1.jpg; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

"Drawing in pen, ink, and watercolor, titled 'An Overseer Doing his Duty'; a white overseer supervising two female slaves with long-handled hoes working in a tobacco field. This scene was "sketched from life near Fredericksburg, 13 March 1798."

"Cultivating Tobacco, Virginia, 1798," Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Sketchbook, III, 33, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore; "The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record," University of Virginia; available from http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=NW0048; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 261 & 264 Maps Page

Watercolor of Inuit Woman by John White, "Inuit woman and her child kidnapped by English Expedition of Martin Frobisher in 1570's." Found at British Museum. Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., 500 Nations: An Illustrated History of North American Indians (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1994), 179.

Appears on History 261 & 264 Maps Page

"Caption, 'Jamaica Negroes Cutting Cane in their Working Dresses'; men and women in 'first gang' cutting cane; black driver."

"Sugar Cane Harvest, Jamaica, 1820s," H. T. De La Beche, Notes on the Present Condition of the Negroes in Jamaica (London, 1825), frontispiece. (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University); "The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record," University of Virginia; available from http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=NW0055; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 261 & 264 Maps Page

Print entitled "Keep Within Compass and You Shall be Sure to Avoid Many Troubles which Others Endure," Colonial Williamsburg, The World's Largest Living History Museum; available from http://www.history.org/Almanack/life/manners/rules2.cfm; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 261 Assignments Page

"Campell and Rice note that Richmond, the capital of Virginia, 'was the second largest slave-trading market in the South, and many visitors witnessed auctions there.' This oil painting was made by an English artist, Levevre J. Cranstone (1845-1867), who 'probably" based his painting "on a work by the artist Eyre Crowe.'"

"Slave Auction, Richmond, Virginia, 1862," Published in E.D.C. Campbell, Jr. and K.S. Rice, Before Freedom Came: African-american Life in the Antebellum South (Charlottesville, Univ. Press of Virginia, 1991), plate 1, p. x.; "The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record," University of Virginia; available from http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=NW0245; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 261 Assignments Page “Quilting bees, depicted in Quilting Bee (ca. 1855), a work by an anonymous artist, offered men and women a rare opportunity to socialize.”
Appears on History 262 Page

Color silkscreen on board entitled Jobs for Girls & Women, 1941, by Albert M. Bender of the Federal Art Project (Chicago). 55.9 x 35.6 cm (22 x 14 in.), Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Posters American Style: Advice to Americans; available from http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/posters/objects/aa-index.html; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

Appears on History 262 Page

"Hung Liu's work draws from photographs of Chinese women and explores women's place in society from eastern and western perspectives."

Print entitled Sisters, 2000, by Hung Liu. Photo by Barbara Shark; available from http://www.autry-museum.org/explore/exhibits/drawn/sisters_full.html; Women of the West Museum; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

Appears on History 262 Maps Page

Color lithograph entitled The Girl on the Land Serves the Nation's Need, 1917-18 , by Edward Penfield of Y.W.C.A. 63.5 x 76.2 cm (25 x 30 in.), Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford University ; Posters American Style: Advice to Americans; available from http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/posters/objects/aa-index.html; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

"Lakota Sioux members of the St. Mary Society of the Holy Rosary Mission in Pine Ridge, South Dakota, display samples of their quilting in this 1938 photo."

To Honor and Comfort, eds. C. Kurt Dewhurst and Marsha L. MacDowell (Santa Fe,
New Mexico: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1997) 96.

Appears on History 262 Assignments Page

"Mexican American Women Cannery Workers " ca. 1930; "Shades of L.A. Collection," Los Angeles Public Library; available from http://catalog1.lapl.org/cgi-bin/cw_cgi?fullRecord+24652+968+19364+19+0; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 262 Assignments Page

Collage on board with tempera paint and photographic elements entitled Women in Industry . . . We Can't Win without Them, ca. 1942, by Unidentified Postermaker. 38.7 x 40.4 cm (12 1/2 x 15 7/8 in.), National Archives, Washington , D.C.; Posters American Style: Advice to Americans; available at http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/posters/objects/aa-index.html; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

Appears on History 262 Assignments Page

"The vast majority of working women in the postwar era were employed in low-paying, often part-time jobs as clerks, secretaries, waitresses, domestics, and telephone operators." Photograph of female telephone operators, ca. 1940s, source unknown.

"Teresita Sandoval was a mestiza woman (meaning she was of mixed Spanish and Indian heritage) born in Taos, New Mexico, in 1811. Her story is one of many that describe the blending of races and social classes in Mexico, and the role and rights of frontier women in Mexico and the U.S."

Alexander Barclay, "Teresita Sandoval," 1853; Courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, BANC MSS P-E 238; "The Mexican North: Encounters," Autry National Center: Museum of the American West; available from http://museumoftheamericanwest.org/explore/exhibits/ encounters/themexicannorth/index.php?page=4-1-2; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 264 Page

“The typical scene of an Indian boarding school sewing class was taken in Fort Yates, South Dakota. C. 1930"

To Honor and Comfort, eds. C. Kurt Dewhurst and Marsha L. MacDowell (Santa Fe,
New Mexico: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1997) 94.

" A small procession, showing several people carrying various material objects, including a bow and arrow, a small chest, and a mortar and pestle; also, a musician playing the marimba/balafon. Antonio Cavazzi (b. 1621) was an Italian priest who from 1654 to 1667 joined the Capuchin mission in what is today northern Angola; after a visit to Europe, he returned to Angola, particularly the Kingdom of Kongo, where he remained from 1672 to 1677. He died in Genoa in 1678. Cavazzi made this and other watercolors (see also "Cavazzi" for other images on this web site), the originals of which are in his manuscript, located in a private collection in Modena, Italy; a microfilm copy of the manuscript is held by the Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library. Cavazzi's drawings must be among the earliest known eyewitness sketches of African life by a European; they can be contrasted to, for example, the fanciful depictions found in Dapper (see, "Dapper" on this web site)."

"Ceremonial Procession, Kingdom of Kongo, 1670s," Ezio Bassani, ed., Un Cappuccino nell'Africa nera del seicento: I disegni dei Manoscritti Araldi del Padre Giovanni Antonio Cavazzi da Montecuccolo (Quaderni Poro, no. 4, 1987), plate 23; "The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record," University of Virginia; available from http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=Bassani-23; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 264 Assignments Page

"The rural and community nature of the Second Great Awakening is captured in this illustration. The preacher exhorts the large audience, which responds with emotion. Many of the most enthusiastic converts were women, who gained a new feeling of moral and social consequence through their religious experience."

Camp Meeting. Color lithograph by Kennedy and Lucas, after a painting by A. Rider, ca. 1835, negative number 26275. Collection of the New York Historical Society, New York City.

Appears on History 264 Assignments Page

“A peasant woman washes dishes after feeding her family and friends. Near the provincial capital of Victoria de Las Tunas, Cuba .”

Margaret Randall, Women Brave in the Face of Danger: Photographs of and Writings by Latin and North American Women (Trumansburg, New York: The Crossing Press, 1985).

Appears on History 300 Page

Image of broadside advertising votes for women, ca. 1910s, from "Sources for Women's History at the IISH: Introduction," International Institute of Social History: Women's History; available from http://www.iisg.nl/%7Ewomhist/womarc.html; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

" In March 1974, the CWLU helped organize the"Economic Justice for Women" demonstration advocating equal pay and day care."

"Economic Justice March," The Chicago Women's Liberation Union Herstory Web site Gallery; available from http://www.cwluherstory.org./CWLUGallery/Photo01.html; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 300 Maps Page

"Ms. Fannie Lou Hamer, Ms. Victoria Jackson Gray, and Ms. Annie Devine (1965) Founding members of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and First African American women to be seated on the floor of the US House of Representatives."

Photograph of Fannie Lou Hamer, Victoria Jackson Gray, and Annie Devine, 1965; Fannie Lou Hamer Project: Defining Campaign Finance as a Civil Rights Issue; available from http://www.flhp.org/CASESTATEMENT.pdf; Internet; accessed 17 September 2004.

Appears on History 300 Assignments Page

“The writing on the wall is by Nicaraguan poet-martyr Leonel Rugama. ‘The heroes, our heroes, never said they'd die for their country. They just died…' Rugama was twenty years old when the house he was hiding in was surrounded and he was murdered by four hundred national guardsmen in January of 1970.”

Margaret Randall, Women Brave in the Face of Danger: Photographs of and Writings by Latin and North American Women (Trumansburg, New York: The Crossing Press, 1985).

Appears on History 300 Assignments Page

"In the early 1970s, artist Judy Chicago embarked on a project to honor great women throughout history who had previously been overlooked. She recognized them in The Dinner Party, which was a monumental collaboration between and about women. The project took five years to complete and involved 400 artists and craftspeople. The Dinner Party is made up of a triangular table set for 39 women guests. Another 999 women are recognized with their names written on porcelain tiles on the floor underneath the table. Using ceramics, needlepoint, and painting, the installation honors women and acknowledges art forms that previously were considered merely decorative women's work. At the time, The Dinner Party was also intended to make a political statement that reflected the feminist movement of the 1970s. The honored women spanned prehistory to the present and included mythic goddesses, religious figures, royalty, artists, social activists, medical workers, educators, philosophers, scholars, and writers."

Mixed Media entitled The Dinner Party, 1979, by Judy Chicago, copyrighted by Through the Flower Archives courtesy Through the Flower; available from http://www.autry-museum.org/explore/exhibits/images/drawn/dinner_full.jpg; Internet; accessed 16 September 2004.

"One of the earliest known examples of an American illuminated marriage contract, this ketubah celebrates the wedding of Meir Meyerstone and Rebekah De Meza on November 7, 1819."

Ink, pencil, and watercolor on parchment entitled Ketubah (marriage certificate), 1819, courtesy of the HUC Skirball Cultural Center Museum Collection, Los Angeles, gift of Mr. and Mrs. William M. Daniel; available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-haven.html; Internet; accessed 11 January 2007.

"Domestic Slave with Planter's Family," Virginia, ca. 1859-64, photograph by unidentified photographer found in Picturing the South, 1860 to the Present, ed. Ellen Dugan (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1996), 32.  Also available at http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/slavery/details.php?categorynum=9&categoryName=Domestic%20Servants%20and%20Free%20People%20of%20Color&theRecord=10&recordCount=56; Internet; accessed 11 January 2007.

"Sirors is 16 years old and has been working as a peer educator with the Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia (RHAC) in the Kampong Cham Province of Cambodia for the last year. She provides young people in her village with reproductive health information and referral for healthcare services. She wants all parents to understand the importance of providing young people with sexual and reproductive health information and supporting her work in the community."

"Population and Reproductive Health: Oral History Project," Sophia Smith Collection: Women's History Manuscripts at Smith College; copyright 2005 Aimee Centivany, courtesy of Photoshare; available at http://www.smith.edu/libraries/libs/ssc/prh/prh-intro.html; Internet; accessed 12 January 2007.

"This photograph of newsboys Waiting for the 'Forwards,' was taken by Lewis Hine at 1:15 a.m. on the steps of the building where the Jewish daily the Forward was produced on New York's Lower East Side. According to Hine, the group included a number of boys as young as ten years-old. The newsboy in the first row is holding copies of Wahrheit [Truth], a Yiddish daily newspaper that stressed Jewish national aspirations."

"Waiting for the 'Forwards' - Jewish paper of 1 AM," Lewis Hine (1874-1940), New York, March 1913, Gelatin silver print from photographic album; available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-century.html; Internet; accessed 11 January 2007.

Appears on History 417 Page "This three-year-old Hispanic girl learns to read in a Head Start program. One of several programs established by the 1964 Economic Opportunity Act, Head Start prepared preschoolers from low-income families for grade school." (E. Crews/The Image Works)
Appears on History 417 Page

Photograph of "Mother and Child at Okeechobee Migratory Labor Camp, Belle Glade, Florida," by Marion Post Walcott, 1940. Copyright of gelatin silver print, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USF34-054160 (7) ; "When They were Young: A Photographic Retrospective of Childhood," Library of Congress; available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/young/images/y07-8c30445r.jpg; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 417 Maps Page

Photograph of "Six Children at Swimming Hole," by Theodor Horydczak, ca. 1920-1950. Copyprint of gelatin silver print, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-H822-T01-1689-002 (13); "When They were Young: A Photographic Retrospective of Childhood," Library of Congress; available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/young/images/y13-5a47388r.jpg; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on History 417 Assignments Page

Photograph of "Ozark Children Getting Mail from RFD Box, Missouri," by John Vachon, 1940. Copyprint of gelatin silver print, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USF33-001862-M2 (6); available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/young/images/y06-8a06242r.jpg; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

Appears on Sources Page

" CWLU Office on Lincoln Ave, circa 1974"

"CWLU Office," The Chicago Women's Liberation Union Herstory Web site Gallery; available from http://www.cwluherstory.org./CWLUGallery/PhotosW5.html; Internet; accessed 2 September 2004.

 

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